Sahar Abdullah
Grade-10 Project Number- 325
Title: MC3T3 Mouse Pre-Osteoblast Cell and 4T1.2 Mammary Tumor Cell Interactions
-- Metastatic breast cancer is the most advanced stage of breast cancer. At this stage, the original breast cancer cells have spread beyond the breast to other parts of the body. Breast cancer is very commonly diagnosed to be the leading cause of cancer death in women globally; metastatic disease is accountable for the majority of these cancer diagnosis. Different types of breast cancer cause different symptoms; likewise, metastatic breast cancer symptoms depend on where the breast cancer has spread to. One of the most common areas for metastatic breast cancer to spread to include the bone. Understanding interactions between bone and breast tumor cells will provide insight into treating metastatic breast cancer to the bone in the future. Osteoblastic bone metastases is related to the stimulation of osteoblasts, which are cells that build up bone mass; this will result in weaker and unhealthy bone tissue causing serious skeletal related injuries in the future. Preosteoblast cells are mesenchymal cells that differentiate into osteoblast cells. The focus of this project is to analyze and determine individual characteristics and interactions between 4T1.2 metastatic mouse breast tumor cells and MC3T3 mouse preosteoblast cells. 4T1.2 cells and MC3T3 cells were grown in separate dishes to distinguish their shape and formation patterns and behaviors. The cells were subcultured when confluence was reached, and solution was changed when needed. When the cells reached a healthy stage, different amounts of both MC3T3 and 4T1.2 cells were transferred into separate dishes in order to identify changes in characteristics due to cell-to-cell interactions; this can help to understand more details in the bone and breast cell interactions. I hypothesized that the MC3T3 and 4T1.2 cells would grow in close proximity to each other, however, their individual characteristics would not change. A specific region was mapped and observed daily. The cell’s location and shape were recorded using Infinity Capture software. The bone cells were often encapsulated by the tumor cells. The individual characteristics of the cells did not change, nor did any new characteristics develop.

Laila AbuMahfouz
Grade-5 Project Number- 118
Title: How Safe is Your Water?
--In this science project, I tried to see which source of water was the safest for us to drink in our lives. The purpose of my project is to test different sources of water for specific contaminants and parameters like pH, alkalinity, water hardness, nitrates, and chlorine, and to create awareness of the quality of the water that we drink every day. I hypothesized that bottled water is the safest to drink followed by filtered water, then by tap water, and finally by rainwater. I based my hypothesis on the fact that bottled water is the most treated kind of water, and that rainwater is the least treated kind of water. I used test strips to determine the contaminants in water sources, and I used a pH meter for the pH. The results of my project were as followed: filtered water turned out to be the safest source of water to consume followed by bottled water, then by rainwater, and finally by tap water. The challenge that we will always face is to find one source of water that has all contaminants that fall within the ideal range.

Jessica Agonis
Grade-9 Project Number- 310
Title: Acid Rain Radish Growth
--The purpose of these experiments focused on the effect that acid rain has on the growth and development of radishes and if there are natural substances that could “protect” radishes under specified conditions. Sixty-four radishes were grown under the same day-to-day conditions, but divided into two groups. One group had individual plants receiving dilute sulfuric acid solutions with a different pH. It was hypothesized that in this group that if the pH decreases by .5, the leaves would be 4% smaller. In the other group, individual plants were watered with a dilute solution of sulfuric acid with a pH of 4.0 and then received an additive of banana chip crumbs, calcium carbonate powder, or kosher salt to determine which additive neutralized the acid the best. It was hypothesized that any of these additives would increase the size of the leaves by 6%. In both experiments, the hypothesis was not completely supported by the data. Measurements of height and width of the leaves were taken. Results of the experiments were based on averages. The results of the first experiment were more dramatic than predicted by the hypothesis. The control radishes were actually around 50% larger than the pH 4.0 radishes against the prediction of a only 4%. In the second experiment, the only group that did really well with the additives was the banana chip group. It is unclear whether the banana protected the radishes or acted as a fertilizer.

Mariana Aguilar
Title: Treating Lowe Syndrome patient cells with novel therapeutic agents
--This project shows the results of testing two FDA-approved drugs capable of reverting phenotypes of patients suffering of Lowe Syndrome. Lowe Syndrome (LS) is a terrible genetic disease caused by mutations in the OCRL1 gene that unfortunately leads to the early death of affected children mostly of kidney failure. Although LS was first described more than 60 years ago no specific treatment is available to patients. However, before these therapeutic agents can be used by patients, their potential toxicity vs beneficial dose range needed to be tested. Therefore, I proceeded to test different doses of each drug (below and above the FDA-approved range of use) on skin fibroblasts from normal and LS children. Since many organs (such as the kidneys) need to be constantly replenished with cells produced from tissue stem cells, I also tested the drugs on induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC). The ability of the cells to survive and growth as well as to maintain a healthy morphology was assessed. I found that if the drugs are used within the dose range approved by FDA for other indications, they also produce beneficial effects for LS patient cells without noticeable toxicity. These results are very exciting because they suggest that these candidate drugs can be readily used under the conditions approved by FDA to help LS children to cope with this devastating disease. I hope that these studies will help to accelerate the process of making these drugs available for treatment of Lowe syndrome children.
West Lafayette

Benjamin Alcantara
Grade-4 Project Number- 105
Title: Surface Tension Comprehension
--The Purpose of my experiment was to determine how different additives affect the surface tension of water. Hypothesis: The Surface Tension (ST) of water will be increased by salt & sugar solutes and decreased by dish soap & rinse aid in the following order, greatest to least ST: Salt Water > Sugar Water > Water > Dish Soap Water > Rinse Aid Water. Null Hypothesis: Additives will have no effect on the surface tension of water. Procedure: Prepare 5 test solutions: water (control), salt water, sugar water, dish soap water and rinse aid water. Using a dropper, count the number of drops that fit on a coin before the surface tension breaks and the liquid spills. Average trials, then measure the volume of the average number of drops of each liquid in a graduated cylinder. Results: The Surface Tension (ST) of water was increased by salt & sugar solutes and decreased by dish soap & rinse aid in the following order, greatest to least ST: Salt Water > Sugar Water > Water > Dish Soap Water > Rinse Aid Water. Conclusion: The results support my Hypothesis that the surface tension of water is increased by salt and sugar and decreased by dish soap and rinse aid.

Karina Almazan
Grade-11 Project Number- 346
Title: Presence of CP12 Protein in Dodder
--CP12 is a three part protein that is found in most photosynthetic organisms, including: cyanobacteria, diatoms, red and green algae, and higher plants. It has a clearly defined role in the Calvin cycle, though it may play a wider role. It is known that CP12 is found in non-photosynthetic organs of photosynthetic organisms, more specifically CP12-1 and CP12-3. Based on this fact, I developed a hypothesis that CP12-1 and CP12-3 would also be present in non-photosynthetic plants. The purpose of this project was to compare the non photosynthetic plant dodder against the positive control Arabidopsis to determine the presence of CP12 using methods of molecular biology including: DNA extraction, PCR, and gel electrophoresis. The gel did amplify the CP12 genes of the positive control Arabidopsis, as well as the CP12-1, though not the CP12-3. Based on the results of the gel, it can be tentatively confirmed that one CP12 gene, CP12-1, is in fact present in the genome of dodder, a non-photosynthetic plant.

Rana Amouri
Grade-5 Project Number- 112
Title: Growing Yeast With Sugar Substitutes
--The purpose of my experiment was to determine if yeast would reproduce and ferment with a sugar substitute the same way or better than it does when combined with sugar. It is important to look for alternatives to regular sugar because we are moving towards a healthier lifestyle. There are also people like diabetics that can't consume alot of sugar so they need to find healthier alternatives as well. I took 2 teaspoons of yeast and added it to 1 cup of 110 degree fahrenheit water. I used 110 degree water because water needs to be 110-115 degrees fahrenheit so that it will blossom. If the water temperature is too hot or too cold the yeast will not reproduce. Then I added 2 teaspoons of one of the following: sugar, honey, sucralose, saccharin, aspartame, or stevia and then added the mixture to a plastic 500mL water bottle. I chose those substances because they are common sugar substitutes according to Google. I then put a lid with a plastic hose glued to it and connected it to an inverted graduated 500mL cylinder filled with water. When the cap is placed on the water bottle, it traps the CO2 produced from the yeast and sugar fermenting. The CO2 gas will then move upwards into the hose and up into the graduated cylinder and displace the water inside. I let the process run for 35 minutes and then measured how much water was gone from the cylinder. The more the water was displaced means more CO2 was produced meaning that substance worked the best and produced the most fermented yeast. I charted my results. I found several substances displaced all 500mL of water but honey displaced all of the water the fastest at an average time of 27 minutes.

Eliza Andersen
Grade-7 Project Number- 152
Title: Ice Cube Clarity
--How does one recreate the sparkling clarity of ice shown in advertisements of beverages? Does boiling the water prior to freezing enhance the clarity, and if so, what kind of boiling? Ice cubes made at home are typically cloudy and white in the center. Why are ice cubes so cloudy? They are cloudy because dissolved oxygen atoms in the cooling water cannot escape the water before it becomes solid ice. To test whether different water preparations had an impact on clarity of ice, I froze six different water types. I froze (i) regular tap water, (ii) tap water boiled with heat, (iii) tap water boiled with a vacuum, (iv) regular distilled water, (vi) distilled water boiled with heat, and (vi) distilled water boiled with a vacuum. I compared the clarity of all of the ice cubes. My hypothesis was that water boiled with heat or a vacuum would freeze into clearer ice. The experimental results mostly supported my hypothesis, but I also concluded that the manner in which the ice is frozen (e.g., speed) may also impact clarity of the ice. Ice cubes made at home are typically cloudy and white in the center. Why are ice cubes so cloudy? They are cloudy because dissolved oxygen atoms in the cooling water cannot escape the water before it becomes solid ice. To test whether different water preparations had an impact on clarity of ice, I froze six different water types. I froze (i) regular tap water, (ii) water boiled with heat, (iii) water boiled with a vacuum, (iv) regular distilled water, (vi) distilled water boiled with heat, and (vi) distilled water boiled with a vacuum. I compared the clarity of all of the ice cubes. My hypothesis was that water boiled with heat or a vacuum would freeze into clearer ice. The experimental results mostly supported my hypothesis, but I also concluded that the manner in which the ice is frozen may have a larger impact on clarity of the ice than how the water is prepared prior to freezing.
Fort Wayne

Jordyn Anthony
Grade-9 Project Number- 301
Title: The Effect of Green Potatoes on Different Organisms
--The Effects of Solanum Tuberosum on Different Organisms Anthony, Jordan, Northwestern H.S., Kokomo, IN 46901 The purpose of this experiment is to test the effects of solanine toxin from overexposed potatoes on different levels of organisms to see if the life of the organism is affected by the toxin. Many people are concerned about the safety of a green potato, thus this experiment will test the skin on levels of organisms. The experiment tested this on E. Coli and B. Cereus, then on Daphnia and Pillbugs. Placing the potato skin in the presence of the bacteria, it was not affected at all. This means Solanine toxin is not antibacterial. Testing the potato skin in the presence of Daphnia, it disabled them from reproducing at a constant rate, while the pill bugs were not affected. This leads me to the conclusion that overexposing potatoes to sunlight is not as harmful as some scientist think. The hypothesis was not supported because as the inability to separate the solanine toxin completely from the potato

Yoshio Ascencio
Grade-12 Project Number- 367
Title: Augmentation of the Shashlik Detector's Components
--A Shashlik Calorimeter is made up of main components that are wave shifting capillaries, alternating tungsten plates, and scintillating LYSO tiles; however, the Shashlik Calorimeter is incomplete and still needs adjustments before it can be fully installed into larger projects. In order to process information more accurate and reliable, research will investigate different scintillating liquids, in the form of lozenges and optical fibers, and observe how they respond to multiple excitation and emission rates using a spectrophotometer. And in order to test the performance of the capillaries a steady, uniform, and precise setup must be created. A temporary manual setup has been created however the transition to an automated system will improve accuracy and the rate at which capillaries can be tested. The system must ensure that the capillaries are scintillating at consistent intensities throughout their entire length. Lastly in order to test the scintillating liquids and wave-shifting materials a spectrophotometer has been and will continue being used for analysis of any data retrieved from any liquids, lozenges, or fibers that we test.

Sepehr Asgari
Grade-11 Project Number- 340
Title: Engineering of Fusion Protein Therapeutics to Efficiently Combat Neurological Damage Caused by E. coli K1 Meningitis
--Acute bacterial meningitis is a medical crisis with a poor prognosis, especially if treatment is prolonged. Development of bacteremia and sepsis is common during infection and neurological sequelae is prevalent in survivors. Escherichia coli K1 infection is a major cause of neonatal meningitis. Although mortality has decreased since the advent of antibiotics, morbidity has remained relatively static due to the inadvisable use of anti-inflammatory corticosteroid treatment in neonates. The increased incidence of antibiotic resistance as well as the limitations of adjunctive anti-inflammatory therapies are hurdles in effective treatment, necessitating the development of novel therapeutics. In this study, the concomitant use of endoE and IL-10 in the form of a post-translational fusion protein was investigated as such a therapeutic modality. Results from an enzyme activity assay indicate that an endoE/IL-10 conjugate retained the kinetic activity of wild-type endoE in selectively hydrolyzing alpha-2,8-linked sialic acid. This capsule-depolymerizing activity was also realized in a complement sensitivity assay, which demonstrated the ability of the conjugate to expose complement-resistant bacteria to killing by human blood serum (a source of complement). Furthermore, the conjugate significantly reduced TNF-alpha and ROS production in murine macrophages induced to produce pro-inflammatory mediators by heat-killed E. coli K1. These findings demonstrate the potential of the endoE/IL-10 conjugate as a therapeutic for treating E. coli K1 meningitis, as it attenuates E. coli K1 virulence by both selectively degrading its pathogenic capsule and reducing associated inflammation.

Ammar Atia
Title: ASD or IQ?
--Autism Spectrum Disorder is a very common mental illness around the world. You may be living with someone with slight autism or features showing as being on the spectrum and you may have never realized it. Scientists can’t seem to find a pattern in genetics or behavioral genetics. The hypothesis I was investigating was if students who perform better in school have a more percentage of being on the spectrum than the average student. I went through a multi-step process to get the best results. I took small portions of a 2 hour exam in diagnosing autism in young adults that has 98% accuracy in diagnosis. After this, I tested 20 students out of the “excel program” and 20 students in the regular classes who had shown no signs of excelling. I looked over this data and analyzed the results to find out what percentage of the 20 excelling students and average students had autism. From these surveys, I concluded that 18 of the 20 excelling students showed results of 0.5 or above of being on the spectrum, 0 being no signs of being on the spectrum and 1 being severe autism. This shows that 90% of the excelling students showed to be on the spectrum. Of the average students tested, 6 of the 20 showed results of 0.5 or above of being on the spectrum. This means that 30% of the average students showed to be on the spectrum. These findings could help scientists discover patterns in ASD.

Mark Avila
Grade-7 Project Number- 150
Title: Varying the Viscosity of Starch
--My experiment tests how salt, sugar, and citric acid affect the thickening ability of flour, corn starch, and tapioca, common starches used in cooking. My hypothesis for this experiment is that salt and sugar will increase the viscosity, whereas the citric acid will make the viscosity go down. To measure relative thickness of liquid, I am using a formula for viscosity. My experiment consists of putting one cup of water with 13 grams of thickener, and either 30 or 60 grams of additive. Additives are salt, sugar, and citric acid. I heat the mixed liquid to 205 degrees, put it in a graduated cylinder, measure the mass, and let it cool to 65 degrees. I drop three steel balls in the cylinder and carefully measure the time it takes to drop. Viscosity is then calculated using the measured data. I repeat this experiment 25 times using varying amounts. My experiment shows the additives definitely change the viscosity as shown by my results. The viscosity went up for all of the 30 gram tests using flour and corn starch as thickeners. For 30 grams of tapioca it went up with sugar, but down for salt and citric acid. For 60 grams of salt, the viscosity rose over the amounts from the 30 gram tests. Results were mixed for tests with 60 grams of sugar. Finally for all tests with 60 grams of citric acid, the viscosity was reduced significantly.

Raghav Bakshi
Title: An Icy Problem
--Have you ever experienced or witnessed a wreck on icy roads? Many advertisers claim the frequently used calcium chloride (rock salt) to be the best solution for these problems. However, I wanted to look at some other available options that could potentially also be more efficient. My project looks at what substance melts ice the best, and is the most efficient in doing so. The substances that I chose included: sodium chloride (table salt), sugar, calcium chloride (rock salt), magnesium chloride (expensive salt used for melting ice), dish liquid, WD-40, and 62% ethyl alcohol solution (hand sanitizer). I hypothesized that rock salt would perform the best and that it would melt 75% of the ice. To test my hypothesis I placed three ice cubes into eight bowls. The bowls were filled with 1/2 of a teaspoon of each of the seven substances; the eighth bowl was my control. I then moved all eight bowls into a 36 o Fahrenheit refrigerator. After an hour I took all eight bowls out of the fridge and measured the amount of ice melted. I then left the remaining ice cubes to melt at room temperature and I measured the remaining amount. My final results were based off of the percent melted which was calculated by dividing the amount of ice melted in one hour, by the volume of the ice cubes. My hypothesis was proven wrong, as the rock salt was third most efficient.
Terre Haute

Grant Bauman
Grade-6 Project Number- 132
Title: Duped by the Stroop
--This project taught me just a little bit about how the mind works. This experiment was designed to test the Stroop Effect with two different age groups, aged 8-18 and 35-50. The purpose of this experiment was to see which age group would react quicker when introduced to the Stroop Effect. The hypothesis was that the 8-18 age group would react faster to the Stroop Effect, because their minds aren’t fully developed yet. However, that statement was incorrect as the results did not support the hypothesis. This experiment utilized twenty notecards, ten of them with a color word in the corresponding color, and the other 10 of them with a color that was different from the word. The first set of ten cards was trial one, and the second set of cards was trial two. In order to control as many variables as possible, the cards were kept in the same order for every trial and every subject. Also, everyone was tested in the same room to ensure that the lighting conditions remained the same. 20 subjects were tested, 10 from each age group, and in the end, trial one was subtracted from trial two to find the difference of the times. Then, the average time difference per group was calculated. Finally, the results showed that, in the end, the 35-50 age group reacted faster than the 8-18 age group, and had a lower average time difference.
West Lafayette

Kayla Bevington
Grade-11 Project Number- 360
Title: The Effects of Physical Books vs. E-Books on Brainwave Activity
--The purpose of my experiment is to determine the effects that e-books have on human brainwave activity. If the subject reads a passage from a physical book the brain waves of said participant will be higher than the brain waves occurring when reading an e-book. The subjects had the EMOTIV Epoc+ headset placed on their head. This device was used to monitor the brainwaves of each subject. Each subject was then asked to read passages from The Cat in the Hat by Dr. Seuss, Pearson Chemistry by Wilbraham, Stanley, Matta, and Waterman, and Chemistry: The Central Science (AP Edition) by Brown, Lemay, Bursten, Murphy, Woodward, and Stoltzfus on both physical and electronic copies of the books. In the experiment, subjects over the age of eighteen had higher brainwaves with the physical copies of books. However, subjects under the age of eighteen had varied results. Many had high brainwave activity with both physical and electronic copies of the books. This points to a conclusion that electronics effect our brain and even the brainwaves it produces. All of this shows that my hypothesis was partially correct in stating that physical books would have higher brainwave activity than e-books because older generations did have higher activity with those books. However, those of the younger generation responded with differing results.

Michael Blezek
Grade-6 Project Number- 138
Title: Friction
--My experiments name is Friction. I am trying to find out what surfaces have the least amount of friction. My variables consist of metal, wood and sandpaper. My hypothesis for this experiment is that the wood block will travel farthest on the metal surface due to having the least friction. The sandpaper would have the most friction, and the wood surface would have a moderate amount of friction. My materials are a pendulum, guide, wood block, tape measure, pencil, wood insert, metal insert, sandpaper, and a computer for recording data. To start, you must attach the pendulum to the guide and line up the tape measure. Next, lay an insert into the guide. Pull the pendulum back to 135-degrees and set it on the rod. Place the wood block at the starting line and pull the rod until the pendulum falls. It will hit the block of wood making it travel along the insert in the guide. Repeat three times for each surface insert and at each angle; 135-degrees, 90-degrees and 45-degrees. Make sure that you measure the end of the block of wood and mark the guide after every pendulum drop. I concluded the metal surface had the least amount of friction between the block of wood, meaning it went the farthest. The wood surface had the most amount of friction between the block of wood, meaning it traveled the shortest distance. The sandpaper surface had a moderate amount of friction. Therefore, my hypothesis was wrong.

Delaney Bock
Grade-5 Project Number- 111
Title: Cracking Under Pressure
--I decided to do my science fair project on how much pressure wood can take before meeting its elastic limit. I have wanted a treehouse for a long time and I would love to convince my parents to build one for me and my friends. I think I would have a better chance of convincing them if I can prove that it will be safe by building it with strong wood. I want to know which wood can take the most pressure before changing (Hemlock, White Oak, Ash, White Pine, or Cherry). My hypothesis is that white oak will be the strongest wood for a few reasons. White oak felt heavier, a few people that I interviewed and some of my research stated that it was strong wood. It was time to test my hypothesis. I tested five different kinds of wood (each three times) using the tensile testing machine to see how much compressive stress (measured in psi) each piece of wood could handle until it met its elastic limit. After my tests I found out that cherry was the winner. I now know what type of wood to use if I can talk my parents into a treehouse.

Brady Bond
Grade-6 Project Number- 125
Title: Natural Water Filters
--In this project, I wanted to know if using sand, gravel and charcoal would make a difference in purifying water. My hypothesis was that as each glass of water is filtered several times, the water would become clearer because the filter system will be effective in holding back impurities. To test my hypothesis, I used layers of charcoal, gravel, and sand along with a coffee filter and cotton balls in ten different trial experiments. I found the results were very similar. The variable was each glass of filtered water was poured back through the filter system to remove more contaminates. The water became less cloudy and cleared with each trial. This proved my hypothesis to be correct.

Miller Bough
Grade-8 Project Number- 190
Title: Influences of the Mind
--The mind in itself is a mystery. In the difference in function between the mind and brain, wouldn’t it be safe to assume that your mind's creative function is influenced by other functions of the mind like memories? I first came up with the question: Is human behavior and creativity influenced by our mind's remembered experiences or is it purely the creative function? My hypothesis followed stating, if human behavior and creativity is influenced by movies and television, then the way a person would act in a situation should reflect that creatively and behaviorally. I tested this by creating a questionnaire/survey where students with no prior knowledge of the questions, answered the questions and told what influenced their responses. I then administered the questionnaire to 35 students. With the results back I began to collect the responses. I finally compiled the data into graphs for a visual understanding. I realized that the category of movies and television is used most often consecutively. Many of the other answers were used often too, but very sporadically. The only answer used often enough in each question to even compete with movies and television was the answer “None of the Above”. This is possibly attributed to the memories or experiences influencing their decisions or answers being forgotten and known only by the subconscious mind. In conclusion, my tests proved that humans are influenced by their experiences and their memories from situations that they viewed in movies or on television. Proving my hypothesis correct.
Terre Haute

Maxine Bough
Title: Real Slick: Cleaning Up Oil Spills
--Oil spills have been known to take a devastating toll on marine life. They are a costly hassle to clean up and can cause a tremendous effect on the environment. I tried to find a way to help clean up these spills. In this project, I tested different sorbents to find which one would be the most useful in the event of an oil spill. I used the following natural and manmade items: coconut husks, onions, raw cotton, sawdust, and super absorbent polymers (found in baby diapers). In this experiment, I tested these sorbents in a simulation of what a real oil spill might be like. To do so, I used water and canola oil to measure how much of each fluid the sorbents absorbed. I used a mesh coffee filter to contain the sorbents as I submerged them in the water and oil mixture. This showed how these sorbents would prove helpful in a real life situation. I then put the results of the water to oil ratio into prepared charts. After the sorbents were each tested three times, I was able to average the final water to oil ratio and compile the results into a bar graph to compare the sorbents. After the testing was complete, I was able to come to the conclusion that the raw cotton did the best job of absorbing the largest amount of oil while leaving the most water behind and would be an excellent sorbent to use in an oil spill.
Terre Haute

Abdessamed Boussaha
Grade-11 Project Number- 348
Title: Painless Needle
--The goal of this research is to create a add-on for a syringe which minimizes the pain in hypodermic injections. Many vulnerable demographics such as the diabetic elderly are more susceptible to the pain of a traditional injection. Implementing this into a medical syringe can yield issues with medical expenses and durability. Medical professionals have not attempted to implement such device due to financial obstacles. By using low cost materials such as ABS plastic the cost of making such device will be greatly reduced. The add-on of the needle will rapidly numb the skin therefore reducing the pain of the penetration. This device will revolutionize hypodermic injections in the elderly diabetic population and lead the way to a future of painless needles.

Mohamed Boutfas
Grade-11 Project Number- 356
Title: Can Impedance be used to Detect Amyloid Beta-42 in Artificial Saliva?
--AD is a destructive disease that affects 35 million people each year (Lee et al). Currently, there is no direct method for diagnosing AD. This disease continues to be an ever-growing health concern for seniors. Developing a simple approach to early detection is urgent because it allows individuals to receive treatment in advance and improve their overall well-being. Amyloid-Beta 42 is considered one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease. Aggregation of this protein in the brain damages neurons, which may result in memory loss, hallucinations, and seizures. It has been concluded that Amyloid-Beta 42 can also aggregate in saliva, and higher levels of this protein in saliva do correlate with a higher risk of developing AD (Sabbagh et al, Lee et al, Pareja et al). The purpose of this project was to create a quick and simple method for detecting Amyloid-Beta 42 in saliva solution. Although there is a significant difference in Amyloid-Beta 42 for people with AD versus normal individuals, a mean cutoff value was established, which applied to all of these studies. Saliva solutions consisting of normal saliva Amyloid-Beta 42 and AD saliva Amyloid-Beta 42 would be tested with this silicon chip. Statistical analysis and the RC Constant were plotted in LabVIEW, which displayed the data using a square wave.
West Lafayette

Samuel Bowman
Grade-11 Project Number- 349
Title: Optimizing Neural Networks for Steering Angle Prediction in Semi-autonomous vehicles
--In previous research, I found that a convolutional neural network could be trained to predict a vehicle’s steering angle using a single camera as input, though I was unable to produce a model accurate enough for road use. I believed this to be due to the unoptimized nature of the model. In this project, I researched the effect of optimizing hyperparameters of the network in an attempt to increase accuracy. I trained many models using the public driving dataset with different sets of hyperparameters in order to find a more optimal set. A portion of the dataset was not used to train the network so that it could be used to measure the accuracy of the network in unknown conditions. I found that a learning rate of 0.005, linear activation function, batch size of 100, 25 batches per epoch, and 800 epochs had the least average mean squared error. The average of 3 models trained with these parameters had a mean squared error of 3152, versus 3705 with unoptimized parameters. Though I researched the optimization of hyperparameters, I did not research the effect of different architectures, which have the potential to further increase network accuracy.

Jackson Boyle
Grade-12 Project Number- 365
Title: Multi Fuel Analysis: Evaluation to Compare Emissions
--When purchasing a car, consumers must select what type of fuel they want to use in the car. The ability to use one engine that could run on multiple types of fuels would allow consumers to choose what fuel they use based on need or cost. A modified four-stroke engine was utilized to compare emissions from fuels in a gaseous and a liquid state. Typical fuels that were tested were diesel, gasoline, propane, and alcohol. Uncommon fuels used include WD-40, oxyhydrogen, and Marvel Mystery oil. The multi-fuel system utilizes a custom engineered carburation system that allows for a 11 to 12 air-fuel ratio. The air to fuel ratio is what allows one engine to run multiple fuels. The tests for gaseous fuels utilized a low-pressure natural gas regulator and a milled venturi for gaseous carburation. Utilizing Verner LabQuest sensors in the exhaust, the equipment recorded the parts per million of oxygen and carbon dioxide emissions. Emission results from each test concluded the oxyhydrogen had the lowest carbon dioxide parts per million (74 ) and had the had the highest average level of oxygen parts per million (165,236). Future applications could include vehicles that have the capability to run an internal combustion engine with multi-fuels, such as gasoline, oxyhydrogen, diesel, alcohols, and oils. These alternative fuels must be an equivalent of or supersede the current options that are available today.

Emily Brice
Grade-10 Project Number- 327
Title: Effect of ABO Blood Types on the Growth Rate of Acute Myeloid Leukemia
--Each type of human serum differentiated by blood group was added to one Erlenmeyer flask designed for growth. There were three flasks for each blood type (All with RPMI 1640 and FBS). A 100ml RPMI 1640 solution with 10% FBS was placed in a fourth Erlenmeyer flask as well as 10ml of AML cells as the control. The optical density of each test tube off the side of the Erlenmeyer flasks were periodically measured. As the nutrients were used up and CO2 released into the solution it changed from orange to yellow which are different wavelengths. The wavelength the spectrometer was set to measure was 620; so during the second experiment a drop from each flask was taken and looked at under a microscope so the AML growth could be measured manually to confirm the optical density correctly reflected the growth rate and wasnt varying the measurements due to the change in color. No AML cells were found on the slides from the solutions that contained human serum. Instead they were contaminated by bacteria. The similarity between the controls from the first two experiments lead me to believe the human blood serum was bought contaminated. To test this hypothesis, a sample was taken from each container of human serum and looked at under a microscope. Bacteria was found in each of these samples. It is believed that the human blood serum was contaminated before purchased. No valid conclusion can be drawn in regard to the initial question and hypothesis.

Isabella Budak
Grade-7 Project Number- 145
Title: The Force of Football
-- My project's purpose is to make a better football helmet that decreases brain injuries and reduces concussions. The problem that I am trying to solve is to find a way to make concussions more preventable. I interviewed six people involved with sports on different levels, all the way from middle school to the NFL. They were asked the same six questions about concussions and answered them to the best of their knowledge. My main question was: How can teams prevent concussions in their athletes? I created three football helmet prototypes and tested them by dropping a shot put down a fixed tube onto the helmets. I used clay to represent the brain, and cardboard to represent the skull. I kept the clay at a constant height of six centimeters. The indentation on the brain was recorded each time. Concluding my experiment, I found that the latex tubing and memory foam absorbed the most impact. For that prototype, the impact caused the clay (brain) to decrease 2 centimeters for 2 out of the 3 trials. For the last trial, the clay decreased 2.5 centimeters. My project contributes to engineering by solving the problem that traumatic brain injuries create in football. I wanted to help a sport that many people enjoy become safer. I met our design criteria by having great results for my prototypes, and making them protective. I really believe that my helmets can change the way the world thinks of football!

Wyatt Burris
Grade-6 Project Number- 123
Title: Video Games: Couch Potato or Adrenaline Junky?
--The purpose of this project is to see what happens with your body when you're in the middle of playing an intense action game. Why would you want to find this out? Well, when you play video games you don't really know what's going on in your body. Nobody stops and thinks, "Are video games healthy?, they just want to play to feel happy. So. in this project you will find out what goes on inside and outside your body while playing video games. The problem I investigated was whether video games trigger an adrenaline rush or not. My hypothesis was that when you are playing an intense video game your blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, and pain tolerance will increase. In order to investigate the problem and try to prove my hypothesis, I selected an intense war simulating video game. Using five family members of varying age and gender, I began by measuring blood pressure, pain tolerance, heart rate, and breaths per minute. The test subjects then took turns playing the video game. Upon finishing, I re-measured the test subjects blood pressure, pain tolerance, heart rate, and breaths per minute. The results I got were as I expected. I do think that prior playing experience affected the results. For example, two of my test subjects were already familiar with the game. Those subjects saw little change. The test subjects that had not played before experienced a significant change in their blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, and pain tolerance. In conclusion, I found that video games can trigger an adrenaline response.

Abigail Burton
Grade-8 Project Number- 172
Title: NA3C6H5O7 Anticoagulant - Stopping the Clot
--Coagulation is the process by which a blood clot is formed. Anticoagulants are substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood prolonging the clotting time. They reduce the risk of blood clots. Blood clots form in the blood to stop bleeding. However, blood clots can lead to a heart attack or stroke. My project examined how different percentages of a sodium citrate mixture would affect the coagulation of simulated blood. To study the effects of anticoagulants on coagulation I tested the effects of adding different amounts of sodium citrate (an anticoagulant) to a calcium chloride solution. Sodium citrate is used to disrupt the coagulation process and prevent clotting. The citrate compound binds to the calcium in blood. Reducing this calcium stops the coagulation process. In this experiment I created simulated blood made from a solution of sodium alginate and calcium chloride. Alginates can form a gel-like substance under the right conditions, such as when introduced to a calcium chloride solution. The sodium alginate coagulates and turns into a semisolid ball. These semisolid balls represent blood clots. I experimented to find out if sodium citrate, which represented the anticoagulant, would affect the coagulation/formation of the semisolid balls and what percentage of anticoagulant would be necessary to stop the clot from forming or alter the shape of the clot. I hypothesized that a higher percentage of sodium citrate would cause the blood to anticoagulate more thus affecting the solidity of the ball. For example, a ball made with only one percent sodium citrate solution would be more solid of a ball/blood clot than one made with a two percent solution. I assumed that the sodium citrate would alter the shape of the balls and that the diameter of the ball would increase while the height decreased as the ball became less solid. My experimental results showed that my hypothesis was correct -adding more sodium citrate alters the solidity of the simulated blood clot. As more sodium citrate was added to each calcium chloride solution, the simulated blood did not coagulate as much and formed less and less solid balls. The simulated blood did not clot as much with a larger percentage of sodium citrate added. Different amounts of sodium citrate affect the coagulation of simulated blood and after a certain percentage, adding more of the solution inhibits the formation of a blood clot. In my experimentation, adding 2.5% sodium citrate solution resulted in no clot forming. I experimented with 3.0% as well with the same results. Thus, at the 2.5% threshold there was no benefit to adding more of the sodium citrate solution. Research on using sodium citrate as an anticoagulant shows that this has been a viable method for over 100 years. Sodium citrate disrupts the coagulation cascade and prevents clotting. The citrate ion chelates calcium ions in blood forming calcium citrate complexes and disrupts the blood clotting mechanism.

Christopher Chow
Grade-6 Project Number- 131
Title: How does soil affect the pH of water?
--Soil is important for farmers to get good quality crops, so we would need to know how soil affects the pH of water. This would tell farmers how much they need to irrigate their land to maintain the proper pH for their crops. This experiment shows how three different types of soils affect the pH of tap water. These soils were gathered locally at my backyard, a nearby park, and my neighborhood woods. My hypothesis was that depending on how alkaline or acidic the soil is, that would set the direction on how soil affects the pH of water. I used a soil pH meter to determine the soil pH for each type of soils and I used pH papers to determine the pH level of the tap water. I put together samples of each of the three types of soils and mixed them with tap water to let the mixtures sit for one hour, one day, and two days. I filtered the mixtures at the end of each time period and measured the pH of the filtered water using pH papers. My experimental results supported my hypothesis by showing that the pH of water would become more alkaline or more acidic depending on the soil pH. I can conclude that the soil pH does affect the pH of water, so soil pH can affect how plants grow and the quality of crops.
Terre Haute

Bethany Cisz
Grade-7 Project Number- 148
Title: What Is the Best Way to Dispose of Styrofoam?
--Styrofoam is a common material we use every day and is taking up space in our landfills. I wanted to find the best way to dispose of Styrofoam, so I explored four options: recycling, landfills, worms, and gasoline. I conducted two experiments. In the first, I watched worms eat a block of Styrofoam for a month and discovered that they could break down the Styrofoam in an efficient way. The second was using gasoline to melt Styrofoam and turn it into a new substance. This was a chemical way to dispose of Styrofoam. After forcing pieces of Styrofoam into 1 cup of gasoline in a glass jar for an hour, I had a new glue like substance. I researched recycling and called a recycling center to look at all sides of the problem. Many cities (including Fort Wayne) do not recycle Styrofoam anymore. Lastly, I researched the pros and cons of landfills such as how we can use the harmful methane gas they produce to power machinery. After reviewing all the information, I concluded landfills are the best way to dispose of Styrofoam right now. Landfills are good for the short term, but for the long term some other ideas might be needed. I tried to find a better way to dispose of Styrofoam instead of filling the landfill. Unfortunately, I couldnt seem to find a better way but recognizing the need of finding better ways to dispose of our trash is vital to our health and survival on Earth.
Fort Wayne

Cody Collins
Grade-7 Project Number- 146
Title: Growing Up 1-0-1
--My experiments testing if organic (Essential Organic 1-0-1) or commercial (Miracle-Gro) biostimulants are more effective. First, I planted the seeds, then applied the correct biostimulant to each pot and checked them ever 5-7 day for 25 days. According to my data, the Essential organic 1-0-1 was more efficient after 25 days with an average of 6.22 plants per pot and an average height of 2.41 inches, with Miracle-Grow only having an average of 5.22 plants per pot and an average height of 2.34 inches. In conclusion, my hypothesis was correct because the Essential Organic 1-0-1 contains elements that benefit the natural process of growth including sugars, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic proteins, and more. Also, the organic biostimulant had the highest average growth of 2.41 inches, in contrast with the commercial at 2.34, as well as the highest average number of plants per pot at 6.22 and again over commercial at 5.22.
Butler, IN

Addison Conner
Grade-6 Project Number- 124
Title: Don't Text and Drive, Deer
--My project tested the reaction time of people whom text and drive. I accomplished this by setting up a projector in my garage, which showed a video of a car hitting a deer. I hypothesized that the test subjects reaction time would be slower if they texted the Pledge of Allegiance during the simulation. After testing fifteen licensed drivers, my hypothesis was proven correct. On average, there was an eighty percent slower reaction time for people who texted and drove rather than people who had all their attention on the road. Although my results could have been affected by the fact that no simulation can perfectly duplicate real life, I think a strong correlation can be made between texting and delayed reaction time. Thus my conclusion is that texting and driving is extremely dangerous and should be avoided at all costs!

Justin Cooper
Grade-12 Project Number- 381
Title: Interactive software module for understanding solidification behavior of metals
--In traditional casting, metal is first melted by heating it above its melting temperature. It is then poured into a mold, which can be made of various materials including sand, graphite, and copper. Understanding the solidification behavior during casting is important in the design of components. However, the equations, models, and theories that describe solidification are too complicated to be solved analytically, which significantly increases the difficulty in relating materials properties to basic solidification behavior. To overcome this, we rely on approximated analytical solutions to enable the creation of interactive software modules geared towards students ranging from High School to Graduate School education levels. The module was created in a Jupyter Notebook running the Python programming language on The module enables users to adjust materials properties on-the-fly to explore the solidification behavior of pure metals in a finite mold. The user first inputs the mold wall thickness and cavity size, selects a mold material and metal, and then presses a “Run Interact” button. The module then calculates the solidification time and simulates the solidification behavior of the material through an animated graph. From here the user is able to adjust materials properties directly with interactive sliders. The sliders automatically update solidification velocity graphs, and the user may run an additional simulation by pressing the “Run Interact” button once more. Basic solidification theory, models, and programming code will be presented, and attendees will be able to interact with the module directly.

Brianna Coster
Grade-11 Project Number- 344
Title: Hearing Loss Related to Computers in the Classroom
--The purpose of this experiment is to determine the impact of 1 semester of high dB levels on unilateral or bilateral hearing loss. The hypothesis is that there is some association between dB level and hearing loss while the null indicates that there is no association between dB level and hearing loss. A wide range of students volunteered as participants. This allowed the study to incorporate a variety of outside factors into the study. Participants used the online hearing test ( to perform a before and after hearing test to submit audiograms. Participants weekly recorded a dB level of their device, hours of listening, and other risk factors such as band, going to concerts, using power tools without personal protective equipment, shooting guns, etc. Initial audiograms revealed that only 53.8% of the participants had normal hearing. Weekly reports indicated participants were listening 8 + 8 hours in class at average of 64 + 12 dB. Final audiograms showed 44.8% had a categorical change in hearing loss among participants. An Excel chi square test of independence was performed to examine the relation between hearing loss and dB level. The relation between these variables was significant X2 (1, N = 62), p <.01. Students listening at dB<55 were less likely to show hearing loss than students who listened at dB>55. This supports the hypothesis that there is some association between dB and hearing loss.

Alivia Crozier
Grade-5 Project Number- 120
Title: Ready Set Grow
--In the summer of 2016 my family and I moved to our new home and needed to put in a yard. After the grass began to grow in the new yard there were spots and patches that needed repaired. My dad tried several different quick or easy grass seeds to fill the patches. Some worked, and some didnt. I noticed that the Scotts EZ-Seed grew grass every time. I wanted to test which grass seed grew in our yard, I believed the Scotts EZ-Seed would prove to be the best. To test the products, I selected three grass seeds from Scotts, Pennington, and Vigoro. Each seed was put in equal size patches in trays. Placing the trays outside with sun and rain. I watered the patches as directed on the containers. I then took pictures each time something changed, making notes about which ones grew first, filled out the patch, grew tallest. I then did the same process inside to try and get the same results. The Scotts always emerged or germinated first. The Pennington was slower to emerge, but did nearly catch up with the Scotts, and the Vigoro was slow to emerge and did not grow well. In the end the Scotts EZ-Seed grew to consistent length, the roots penetrated the base soil, and the color and population was more consistent than the other two products. Just as predicted, the Scotts did prove to be the better product.

Boston Custer
Grade-6 Project Number- 133
Title: How Temperature Affects Surface Tension
--I wanted to answer the question: Does the temperature of water have an effect on the surface tension of water? I did this because it seemed like a fun experiment to do for a beginner. I tried investigating to see if the higher temperature water had more of an effect on surface tension since the molecules are moving faster and it would be harder for the paperclip to float. I tested five different temperatures of water. The answer I obtained was that the water with higher temperatures had less surface tension.
Fort Wayne

Jude Dahlquist
Title: Equipotential Lines and Faraday Cages
--This experiment maps equipotential lines and shows how metal objects affect them. First a uniform electric field was made using a 10V transformer as a power supply in a rectangular tray filled with water between two aluminum bars glued to the sides. Faraday cages and other metal objects were placed in the field and equipotential maps were made using a voltmeter. My hypothesis is that shielding weakens part of the electric field only by strengthening another part of the field. Strong fields occur where equipotential lines are close together. Weak fields occur where equipotential lines are far apart. My experiment supports this hypothesis.

John Dalloul
Grade-12 Project Number- 363
Title: The Notch signaling pathway specifies cardiac cell subtypes by regulating the expression of different pericardial genes through distinct mechanisms
--The development of a complex organ involves the specification and differentiation of the diverse cell types that constitute the organ. The Drosophila heart is comprised of two major cell types: contractile cardial cells (CCs) that constitute an inner tube and pericardial cells (PCs) that form a sheath surrounding the CCs. Previous investigations have shown that signaling through the Notch pathway is essential for the specification of PCs, and that the expression of Delta, the ligand for Notch, is restricted to CCs. Prior work showed that binding sites of Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)], an integral transcription factor in the Notch signaling pathway, were enriched in the enhancers of genes specifically expressed in the PCs. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that Notch signaling activates expression of certain PC genes such as Him in a permissive manner. Here data is provided showing that in the case of a different PC-specific gene, Zinc finger homeodomain 1 (zfh 1), Notch signaling activates zfh 1 expression in PCs in a distinctly different, instructive manner: in the case of zfh 1, the Su(H) complex must be turned into an activator in order for the gene to be expressed. Collectively, these data show how the same feature, enrichment of Su(H) binding sites in the enhancers of PC-specific genes, can be utilized by two distinct mechanisms to contribute to the same overall goal: the specification and differentiation of pericardial cell types by activation of the pericardial gene program.
Terre Haute

Ana DeVries
Grade-7 Project Number- 155
Title: Water Bottle, Baking Soda, and Vinegar Rocket
--I was curious about which measurement of baking soda would make a water bottle launch the highest. So, I bought baking soda and white vinegar, found 4 pencils with good erasers, found a lot of new corks, and got an empty water bottle from the recycling. I taped the pencils an equal distance away from each other around the bottle with each eraser end about 2 ½ inches down from the opening of the bottle. Then, I wrapped up 5 of each measurement of baking soda into separate thin layers of a paper towel. The measurements were, 1 ½ teaspoons, 1 teaspoon, and ½ teaspoon of baking soda. Next, I poured 1 ½ cups of vinegar into the opening of the bottle and brought it outside along with the wrapped up baking soda. Lastly, I put the baking soda into the bottle, capped it with the cork, shook it, placed it on the pencil legs, and recorded how high each trial’s rocket went. My experiment proved my hypothesis, because I thought that 1 ½ teaspoons of baking soda would make the rocket launch the highest, and it had the highest average height.

Ankush Dhawan
Grade-10 Project Number- 331
Title: An Improved Method for Trace Level Arsenic Quantification in Water
--Arsenic, king of poisons, threatens public health on an unprecedented scale with over 140 million people in 50 countries drinking water contaminated with arsenic at levels above the EPA/WHO guideline of 10 ppb. The EPA reports that As3+ is probably the most difficult substance encountered in the water purification industry, where its high toxicity and widespread occurrence create the need for effective monitoring. Quantification methods for arsenic are complex, expensive, and time-consuming. Herein, a simple method for trace level quantification of arsenic in water meeting EPA limits using methyl red bromination and spectrophotometry is proposed. First, bromine oxidizes As3+ to As5+. Then, the residual bromine reacts with methyl red to form colorless brominated methyl red. Residual methyl red absorbance at 518nm forms the basis of quantification. With an increase in arsenic levels, less bromine remains to react with methyl red, leading to higher absorbance intensities of residual methyl red. Detailed optimization studies with bromine, acid, and indicator levels led to significant improvements over a previous study (Pandurangappa, 2011). While the earlier study quantified arsenic only in the 50-250 ppb range (not EPA levels), the current study quantifies in the 5-20 ppb range, providing a ten-fold improvement and encompasses the EPA limit of 10 ppb. These insights were also applied to create a simple point-of-use test which is ten times cheaper and faster than current test kits. This study is the first in literature using a common indicator, methyl red, and spectrophotometry to quantify arsenic below EPA limits.

Beatrice DiRienzo
Grade-9 Project Number- 315
Title: Additives and Evergreens
--This experiment was designed to disprove that idea that real trees are messier, don’t live as long, and are harder to care for than artificial trees. To prove this, place five evergreen branches of equal size in water with four different additives and one with no additives, to determine how to care for an evergreen tree in a way that will make it just as beautiful and long-lasting as a fake tree. After monitoring the evergreen branches every day for three weeks, the conclusion is that if you add two ounces of plant fertilizer to every 16 ounces of water, the evergreen tree will live for the entire holiday season, and loose very few needles, making clean up easy. This result proved the hypothesis, which was that the branch without any additives would thrive the most, to be false. Hopefully, the results of this experiment will prove that owning a real tree, which is not only better for the environment, can also be just as easy.

Ashlynn Duckworth
Grade-7 Project Number- 154
Title: The effect of Duckweed on Field Runoff
--Many people routinely use fertilizer for crops, gardens, and lawns. What people don't know is that each time they apply fertilizer, the fertilizer seeps through the soil into the water table. The runoff of fertilizer seeps into the irrigation channels and eventually joins with a river or other body of water. This can eventually lead to the contamination of nearby water sources, like a streams, ponds or lakes. This is an especially big problem for agricultural practices, even though the EPA has regulations the potential for contaminated water sources is still a threat. In this project, In this project, I am experimenting to see if local streams, with surrounding farm fields contain contaminants that have a negative effect on Daphnia and if the aquatic plant duckweed (Lemna) can improve water quality so as to have a positive impact on aquatic life. Water fleas (?Daphnia magna ? ), a freshwater crustacean, will be used as bioassay along with tests from a purchased running water monitoring kit to measure levels of Coliform Bacteria, Dissolved Oxygen, BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), Nitrates, pH, Phosphate, Temperature and Turbidity from three different locations. (USDA ARS, 2005) United States Department of Agriculture- Agricultural Research Service.

Mekenzie Dunnuck
Grade-11 Project Number- 354
Title: Synthesis of Aspirin with Acid Derived from Natural Resources
--Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid, is a widely used drug where Americans alone consume 16,000 tons of aspirin tablets a year, equaling 80 million pills (How products are made). Companies must balance manufacturing costs, capacity, and the safety of the environment. The synthesis of aspirin involves a reaction between salicylic acid and an excess amount of acetic anhydride, with a strong acid used as a catalyst to reduce reaction times. Since the catalyst does not take part directly in the reaction, it is discarded to the environment later. This experiment explored the use of acids found from natural resources like oxalic acid, citric acid, malic acid, and acetic acid as an efficient catalyst in the synthesis of aspirin. In then end when using a phosphoric acid equivalent number of moles, acids from natural resources can be an effective catalyst in the synthesis of aspirin, and even more effective than phosphoric acid. I believed that acetic acid would be the most effective acid found from natural resources due to earlier procedures of the synthesis of aspirin with acetic acid used as a reactant. Testing with the FTIR and TGA machines at cummins showed that with the set time of 10 minutes for boiling, using no catalyst would be the most cost effective catalyst with 15.62 grams of aspirin per dollar. Since the acid found from natural resources would be easier to come by and safer for the environment, the natural resource acids would be the more cost effective option compared to Phosphoric acid.

Julia Economou
Grade-7 Project Number- 149
Title: Heartburn Havoc
--What if you could get rid of heartburn with foods you already have at home? Wouldnt it be better than running to the store and spending money on medications, which in the long run, could do your body more harm than good? Consequently, this project was designed to compare home remedies to over the counter medications in the treatment of heartburn. The researcher wanted to know if certain foods in the refrigerator could work as well as common heartburn medications in restoring the stomachs pH. The researchers hypothesis is that if lemon water or milk are added to a simulated heartburn environment, then they will work as well as or better than antacids and H-2 blockers at raising the pH of the stomach. Skim milk, lemon water, Pepcid, Zantac, and Tums were tested. To the researchers surprise, skim milk had an equal effect to Tums and lemon water had a similar affect. Zantac and Pepcid did not work because they dont directly alter the stomachs pH instead they work by preventing the stomach cells from producing acid. Therefore, Zantac and Pepcid were not good choices for this experiment. Unfortunately, heartburn affects millions of people daily. It costs billions of dollars to treat, and the side effects of medications have been linked to an increase in mortality rates. For these reasons, the researcher hopes that the results of this experiment might inspire others to test and compare healthier and natural ways to combat heartburn.

Ben Edwards
Grade-5 Project Number- 114
Title: Dog Mania
--The aim of my project was to see how a dog's color perception affects the way it finds food. I think my dog will choose color over position when looking for food because dogs see yellow the best of the colors I used. To test this hypothesis, I randomized the location and color of where a treat was placed for a total of 48 trials. I recorded where the dog went first (color and location) and how long it took him to find the treat. I compared where he went first (color and location) to where the treat was in the current and prior trials. My dog had a 25% chance of going to any 1 location or any 1 color (dotted line), so I decided that chance level (about 12 times) was random and not meaningful. My first hypothesis was correct, my dog did prefer a color and did not seem to prefer a location (though he did NOT prefer the left location). My second hypothesis was not correct, because Colby preferred green the most, which was surprising because dogs see yellow and blue the best. My dog rarely went to the color blue, which was surprising because dogs can see blue. It may have been that my dog preferred brightness when searching for food, over color or location, because yellow and green were the brightest squares, and blue and red were the darkest. A future study could test brightness.

Sophia Ewen
Grade-7 Project Number- 165
Title: Activated Charcoal Filtration
-- Experiments were conducted to determine the validity of the hypothesis: Powdered activated charcoal filters colored tap water clearer than either granulated activated charcoal or a white coffee filter. Clear tap water was the control solution. Food colored water was the contaminant. Tap water solutions with different strengths of contaminants were tested. The water solutions were mixed with nothing, with granulated activated charcoal, and with activated charcoal. The color and clarity of the tap water solutions were observed and recorded before being mixed with any activated charcoal and after being filtered through a white coffee filter. The controls filtered quickly and did not change color or clarity. The granulated activated carbon solutions filtered quickly, did not change color, and slightly changed in clarity. The powdered activated carbon solutions filtered slowly and significantly changed color. The powdered activated charcoal adsorbed the contaminant by providing the greatest exposure (surface area and filtering time) to the activated charcoal. The hypothesis was proven true.

Katherine Fancher
Grade-4 Project Number- 108
Title: Don't Let Rust Slow You Down
--I initially wanted to experiment with iron rusting in different liquids. I then learned that different metals in contact with iron can slow down or speed up rusting of iron. I also learned that some metals are more reactive than others. A more reactive metal attached to a less reactive metal would slow down the rust of the less reactive metal. I predicted that more reactive metals will slow down the speed of rusting of iron and less reactive metals will speed up rusting of iron. Using salt water and different metals in contact with iron I was able to show that my hypothesis was mostly correct. Aluminum did not protect the iron from rust as well as I predicted.

Josephine Fields
Grade-8 Project Number- 176
Title: Scholarly Reinforcement
--While revolutionist in the field of psychology, Burrhus F. Skinners, theory of operant conditioning influenced the methods educators apply to modern culture behavior modification in the scholarly setting, conservative educators argue that punishment is the most efficient form of reinforcement. Yet, neither party appears to hold the key that unlocks the proper mechanisms to ensure positive behavior in students with troubled backgrounds. Studies prove that parenting expands further than meeting the basic survival needs of a child. In fact, the home life of parents and children has a significant impact on the childs emotional development, personality, and behavioral habits. Discovering a solution to this decade-old contemplation is crucial in both determining the futures of minority students and in molding erudite mindsets in all children. In an experiment testing the nature of positive reinforcement versus punishment, consenting students (n=13) were divided into two groups and asked to complete an anonymous survey regarding their home lives, academic motivation, and standard mental and physical health. Students were then presented a test consisting of 15 vocabulary words. The objective of this task was to precisely define each word from onto a separate sheet of loose-leaf paper in under 15 minutes. Positive Reinforcement test subjects were granted a goody bag if completed, and Punishment Test Subjects were punished by taking away the goody bag if failure in completion resulted. The results from the experiment supported my hypothesis by proving that positive reinforcement is imperative to productive behavior modification in troubled students. The average test scores improved by 20% when troubled students were given the positive reinforcement test and completed an average of 3 more words than on the punishment test. However, students with parental guidance responded better to punishment than troubled students since they are able to comprehend the complex response in the cerebral cortex that stimulates after punishment occurs. Moving forward with my project, I would like to not only test the differences in brain development and the response to various reinforcement techniques, but whether puberty and hormonal changes can impact a teens response to reinforcement. Additionally, a more effective method to test my hypothesis would be to vary the subjects tasks. This would correlate with the differentiating strengths of the participants.

Austin Fitzgerald
Grade-7 Project Number- 163
Title: Launch!
--Have you ever wanted that perfect and far Frisbee throw? Well this research paper and project will tell you the perfect angle of attack for that perfect throw. I have tested 5 angles to see what will yield the farthest throw. The problem was that I wanted to know which angle of attack would yield the farthest throw. I hypothesized that the angle of 45 degrees would prevail. To test this hypothesis, I had to set up distance markers to measure the distance of flight. To test, I had to first line up the Frisbee with the desired angle and then launch it. After it had landed I measured how far it went, make sure that it doesn't bounce when it lands or else your result is worthless for that throw. After it is measured I repeated the process four times for each angle. The variables I had to deal with were the wind speed and temperature. After the results were in, I learned that angle 0 worked the best with the farthest throw and angle 75 was least effective. In conclusion, my hypothesis was incorrect and I have learned that a flat and level throw will be the most effective.
Terre Haute

Elise Forbes
Grade-8 Project Number- 175
Title: The Effects of Neodymium Magnets on Planeria Regeneration
--The goal of this project is to understand the effects of magnetic exposure during human pregnancies. To figure this out I will be using dugesia planaria and neodymium magnets. Neodymium magnets are known to pull calcium from the planaria and the exposure could be harmful to the speed of regeneration. The magnetic exposure directly affects neoblast cells. Neoblast cells are the cells that allow the planaria to regenerate. To find results on what happens we can separate twenty-four planaria into six 100 mm petri dishes. Each petri dish will have a different magnetic field around it. Group one will be bisected with no magnets. Groups two, three, and four will be bisected with magnet levels from D91, D92, and D93 respectively. Group five will not be bisected and group six will not be bisected but have a magnet D93. After the project is complete, we can see that the planaria with the stronger magnets will take longer to regenerate. The results of this are simply amazing! It is important to understand the application of this project as it relates to the real world. The regeneration of planaria is similar to how other organisms produce offspring. Some cells that are found in planarian regeneration are also found in human pregnancy. We can conclude that continuous magnetic exposure can harm the regeneration of planaria, which is why we need to pay attention to magnetic exposure during human pregnancy.

Aleena Freedman
Grade-6 Project Number- 142
Title: Cookie Catastrophe: What Happened to the Wheat?
--In my project i am testing to see what gluten free flour (in cookie form) is the most like wheat flour in appearance, taste, and texture. My hypothesis is if I test to see which non-wheat flour makes cookies that are the most like wheat flour cookies, then the tapioca flour blend (Cookie B) will behave the most like normal flour because tapioca is in all of the ingredient lists. To test my hypothesis, I followed the Nestle Toll House chocolate chip cookie recipe five times, each time with a different flour. Then I handed out a form and let people try the cookies and write down their opinions. After averaging out all the results, I learned that the brown rice flour (Cookie C) had the highest favorable results and was the most like the wheat flour cookies in appearance, texture, and taste. It was peoples' favorite even when compared to the control.
Fort Wayne

Audrey Galloway
Title: Soil Slake and Infiltration Run-Off
--For our project, we wanted to find out which method of preparing soil was best for crops and the soil itself. Throughout this project, we have seen infiltration in both methods, but one has shown infiltration more than others. Non- tilled soil has a higher infiltration rate and produces less runoff water than tilled soil. By showing how these two preparation methods absorb and hold water, we hope to persuade farmers to move away from tilling. We wanted to improve farming by testing the two methods and observing which one was the best for planting crops thus allowing farmers to have healthier crops. Since the tilled soil has been broken up and lifted, the glues and bonds have broken. This makes it very difficult for the soil to stay together. The water stands and doesn’t absorb.The water that passes through the tilled soil had large dirt clumps and the color of the water was a dark brown. When the water was poured onto the tilled soil, the runoff tray had significantly more water than the infiltration tray. The non-tilled soil has little to know dirt fall through. The little water that went into runoff tray was clear.

Liz Gehlhausen
Grade-8 Project Number- 192
Title: The War on Bacteria (Bacteriostatic vs. Bactericidal)
--People are constantly trying to find a new and improved acne treatment, but which ones actually work and do the best for you? This project looks at what acne treatment works best, whether bactericidal is better compared to bacteriostatic. The two treatments were tested with E-coli K-12 strain. The hypothesis was if the acne treatment is bactericidal, then it will work more efficiently than the acne treatments that are bacteriostatic. The independent variable was the different acne treatments, the dependent variable was the size of the inhibition zones, and the control was the three water plates. The experimental results supported our hypothesis by showing that the bactericidal treatment (Neutrogena) had a larger inhibition zone than the bacteriostatic treatment (Clean and Clear). Although acne bacteria is more gram-positive, we had to use a more gram-negative bacteria. This explains why the Clean and Clear treatment had no inhibition zone whatsoever. Other than that, the results came out as expected.
Santa Claus

Hannah Gerstenkorn
Title: Fabric Softener = Flame Retardant?
--The purpose of this experiment was to determine if washing fabrics with or without fabric softeners would make a difference on their burn times. The procedure is as follows: Obtain Materials. Wash 11 12x12 pieces of each fabric with fabric softener, and 11 12x12 pieces of fabric without fabric softeners. Set up a pan, and a bucket of water in an empty space. Start burning your fabrics one by one and record your burn times after burning each fabric. Compare the burn times. The hypothesis was not supported. The fabrics washed in fabric softeners burned slower than the fabrics washed without fabric softener. For 8 out of 11 fabrics, the ones washed with fabric softener had longer burn times compared to the ones washed without fabric softeners which were found to have faster burn times.
Cedar Lake

Nia Gerwels
Grade-4 Project Number- 107
Title: Which Sorbent is Best for Cleaning Oil Spills in the Water?
--Many things we use everyday are made from petroleum oil. Petroleum oil is carried in ships to factories worldwide. Sometimes the ships collide with ice, rocks, or other ships and the oil spills into the water. This contaminates the water and hurts wildlife. Environmental Engineers clean these spills with sorbents. Sorbents are materials that remove oil from water. In order for a sorbent to work, it needs the 3 principles of the sopping process, capillary action, absorption, and adsorption. I wanted to know which sorbent, fur, laundry lint, cotton, or towels, would work the best to remove oil from water. I hypothesized that the towels would clean oil best. I measured one cup of each cut up sorbent. I combined 3 cups of water and 1 cup of vegetable oil into a measuring cup. I placed one of the measured sorbents into a coffee filter and submerged it into the oil/water mix for 30 second, allowing the filter to drain over the oil/water mix for 30 seconds. I recorded how much oil and water remained. I repeated those steps for the other sorbents and trials. My results showed the fur worked the best. This is because its fibers were more loose giving it more surface area and capillary action. If I were to perform this experiment again, Id use sorbents like coconut husks and corn cobs. These items are usually trash and to repurpose waste would help our environment.

Shelby Gillis
Grade-8 Project Number- 173
Title: Which Cover Crop Will Utilize the Most Water?
--The purpose of the experiment is to try to determine which cover crops root system will utilize the most water. I predict the soil with the wheat will utilize the most water because it is genetically designed to have a stronger root system. Once youve grown the wheat and radish mix, use a watering can and pour five cups of water on each container. After two hours, drain the water into a measuring cup. Record how many milliliters of water was released from the soil. After 2 hours, more water was released from the wheat than the radish containers. My hypothesis was not supported by the data. In all three trials, the radish mix cover crop was the most effective in utilizing the water. In test 1, after applying the water, the radish released 19% of the water, wheat 23%, and control 35%.In test 2, after another five cups, the radish released 51% of water, wheat 59%, and control was 73%. Even though in test 2 the soil was more saturated, the radish mix crop utilized the most water. Since wheat crops have a more fibrous root system, the roots are thinner and more branched out. Radishes have a tap root system that makes it easier for them to absorb more water; therefore. utilizing the water better and growing a stronger crop.

Siya Goel
Title: Progeria: Aging From Childhood
--The purpose of this project was to examine if structural changes in LMNA gene lead to changes in nuclear morphology thus leading to progeria. The following hypothesis was proposed, if SNPs (mutations) in LMNA gene occur then the alteration will lead to changes in the nuclear morphology (chromatin and gene expression) thus leading to progeria because of biological differences in ones body. To test the hypothesis, bio-informatics study was conducted which consisted of two parts: part A and part B. In part A, extensive literature review was conducted to identify different SNPs that cause progeria which included E145K, R119W, E203G, S145K, G608G, A57P, and H222Y. Using I-TASSER software, five three-dimensional structure models for each SNPs and the original LMNA protein were predicted. Next, PyMOL was used to compare the three-dimensional structure for each model of the LMNA gene with the three-dimensional structure for each model of SNP. Each comparison provided a RMS value that measures the similarity of the two three-dimensional structures. The results suggested that SNPs lead to structural changes in LMNA gene. Further, in part B, comparisons were made between nuclei of 9-year-old progeria patient and nuclei of 96-year-old healthy person. ImageJ program was used to provide circulatory value which suggested that chromatin and gene expression was same across the two ages. The results suggest that SNPs in LMNA gene lead to change in nuclear morphology, where a nucleus of 9-year-old progeria patient is similar to a nucleus of 96-year-old healthy person, thus supporting the hypothesis.
West Lafayette

Kiersten Gogel
Grade-8 Project Number- 192
Title: The War on Acne: Bacteriostatic vs. Bactericidal
--People are constantly trying to find a new and improved acne treatment, but which ones actually work and do the best for you? This project looks at what acne treatment works best, whether bactericidal is better compared to bacteriostatic. The two treatments were tested with E-coli K-12 strain. The hypothesis was if the acne treatment is bactericidal, then it will work more efficiently than the acne treatments that are bacteriostatic. The independent variable was the different acne treatments, the dependent variable was the size of the inhibition zones, and the control was the three water plates. The experimental results supported our hypothesis by showing that the bactericidal treatment (Neutrogena) had a larger inhibition zone than the bacteriostatic treatment (Clean and Clear). Although acne bacteria is more gram-positive, we had to use a more gram-negative bacteria. This explains why the Clean and Clear treatment had no inhibition zone whatsoever. Other than that, the results came out as expected.

Emma Grant
Grade-9 Project Number- 303
Title: The Effects of Adding Substances with Ionic or Covalent bonds to Soil Based Microbial Fuel Cells
--This project studied the effects of adding substances with ionic or covalent bonds to soil based microbial fuel cells. One of the major flaws of microbial fuel cells or MFCs is the amount of energy they produce. The purpose of this experiment was to add substances with different types of bonds to increase the conductivity of the membrane of a MFC. The hypothesis was if 10 grams of table salt is added to the membrane of a soil based microbial fuel cell, it will produce 20% more micro-watts of energy on average over ten days compared to a soil based microbial fuel cell without extra salt added to the membrane. This was believed because salt contains ionic bonds, which conduct electricity more efficiently due to the charges from the cation and anion atoms that make up the bond. A MFC with extra sugar was included to support the reasoning behind the hypothesis. The experiment measured the amount of energy produced by three MFCs, one having extra table salt added, one with extra sugar added, and the last being the control group, over the course of ten days. Soil samples from the MFCs were also used a for conductivity test. The conclusion showed that the original hypothesis was not supported, showing the sugar produced the highest amount of energy despite its low conductivity. This is most likely due to the sugar being a food source to the biofilm.

Alexander Gu
Title: A Novel Machine Learning Approach to Detect Patient Resistance in Health Behavior Change Therapy
--Each year, over 42 million adults suffer from some kind of mental illness. Just last year, however, nearly 60% of these adults did not receive any mental health services. Due to both the limited number of therapists and the unwillingness of some patients to seek help themselves, robots are playing an increasingly prevalent role in health behavior change. The CompanionBots project aims to incorporate robots into psychological therapy sessions. These robots facilitate medical diagnosis by generating and answering questions, monitoring patients for illnesses, and talking to them one to one. Because CompanionBots must respond appropriately if patients show any resistance to change, our research to determine the optimal model for precisely describing resistance is a cornerstone for moving forward with the CompanionBots project. Instead of simply detecting resistance, our research describes the patient’s attitude, confidence, and perception of importance toward making the change. The algorithm we use consists of a neural network framework, with novel features and using cross-validation algorithms. Three experiments utilizing different models were performed in order to pinpoint the optimal model for performing the task. These experiments showed that the best model included three lines of context and the Word Embeddings, LIWC, and Phrases features. The model is able to detect the patient’s attitude with an impressive F-measure of 0.362 and the patient’s confidence with an F-measure of 0.306. These results enable CompanionBots to understand a patient’s sentiment and feelings more precisely, and therefore respond differently based on what it detects.

Ephraim Hale
Grade-10 Project Number- 328
--In past years the Greencastle High School Physics class has held a contest regarding a projectile launched from a standard pneumatic launcher, the kind used to safely launch projectiles in many physics classes. The contest is based on farthest distance. This contest served as the inspiration for this experiment. Also, much experience and access in the way of 3-D printing is available, forming a way to create accurate prototypes for this project. The goal of this project was to design and create a 3-D printed projectile that will launch out of a pneumatic launcher. The final product will be the farthest flying and will have the best combination of fin length, fin number, the tilt of fins, and overall length. 21 different tail designs were made and tested based on four categories and a control. These categories were fin tilt, length, number, and overall length. Only the fin tilt had any recognizable correlation which was negative in terms of the lower the tilt angle the farther the distance. This category was tested extensively to eliminate the chance for variables. As the contest rolls around next year the highest performing tilt angle will be used.

Max Hall
Grade-11 Project Number- 355
Title: Usage of Liquid Nitrogen as a CPU Coolant
--Today's computers are not limited by their capability but by the heat they produce. Scientists around the world are trying to develop cooling methods that will bring out the full capability of computers. This project was created to discover the added production of a computer cooled with liquid nitrogen compared to a normal heatsink. In theory, liquid nitrogen, due to its temperature of -196 degrees Celsius, will dissipate more heat than an average cooling system; allowing the computer to be pushed more to its full capacity. This will be tested by first overclocking the CPU to its full potential and benchmarking it with a normal heat sink attached to the CPU. After, the heatsink will be removed and the CPU will be set up to be cooled by liquid nitrogen. Complications with cooling a computer with liquid nitrogen are condensation and parts breaking at low temperatures. To make this test possible, the tubing and the water block used must be insulated to prevent damage to any components. The computer will run the same benchmark and be overclocked to its highest potential while being cooled by liquid nitrogen; just as when it was cooled with the normal heatsink. The results will be compared to see how much more production liquid nitrogen cooling caused the computer to obtain.

Andreas Hardgrave
Grade-8 Project Number- 193
Title: Campfire Fumes
--The environment, air quality, and greenhouse gases are current topics of interest and concern. Any information that can lead to fewer harmful gas emissions is essential to improving our environment. Biomass is under consideration as an alternative fuel source to coal and gas. Many homes are heated with wood. As such, analysis of the smoke produced by wood needs to be undertaken in considering the environmental impact of burning wood. Even a simple campfire adds to the carbon load of the atmosphere. The purpose of this project was to determine what type of wood, when combusted, would produce the least amount of emissions. The hypothesis was that the lower the density of the wood, the less the volume of emissions produced when burned. Ten samples of wood with varying densities were burned and the emitted gasses were collected and measured. Based on the data collected, the hypothesis proved to be true. There appears to be a direct correlation between wood density and the volume of gas produced when the wood is burned. The more dense a wood species, the more emissions created when burned. So less dense woods produce less emissions when burned and are therefore better for the environment. The follow-up question is of course, why?

Mason Harrell
Grade-9 Project Number- 306
Title: The Effects of Tamarindus indica on E. coli, B. subtillus, & B. cereus
--The Effects of Tamarindus indica on E. coli, B. subtilis, & B. cereus, Mason Harrell, Northwestern High School With an increase in the amount of antibiotics people take on a daily basis, the bacteria in the human body have developed immunities and resistances to our regularly prescribed antibiotics. Tamarind has untapped antibacterial potential. The hypothesis was if there is an increased concentration of tamarind in the solutions, then the rings of inhibition would increase, because tamarind has potential antibacterial properties. The goal was to test this potential to its limits and discover the capabilities of tamarind. Tamarind solutions of 0 .01%, 0.1%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. The results of the petri dishes were recorded over a 24, 48, 72-hour period. The results showed that with the 20% and 15% tamarind solutions the E. coli and B. subtilis growth was inhibited the most and showed the largest rings of inhibition during the 72 hour period. B. cereus had rings of inhibition, but they were smaller. At 1%, 5%, and 10% showed rings of inhibition, but they were very small. The plate had no rings by 72 hours. At 0.01% and 0.1% no rings of inhibition occurred. With this knowledge of tamarind’s ability to inhibit bacterial growth, it could be used as a potential natural antibiotic.

Jessica Hartmus
Grade-10 Project Number- 324
Title: The Fine Art of Oxidation - Development of Titanium Anodizing as an Art Medium
--In the US educational system, there has been a push for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), but in recent years, there has been a push roll the fine arts into this as well (STEAM). The idea to use titanium anodizing as an art form helps to bridge the gap between science and art, but typical titanium anodizing requires a large monetary investment to practice the art. In addition, the basic arts and crafts project within the Huntington 4-H program is highly competitive and encompasses nearly 10% of all non-animal projects. In order to compete for first place, I must constantly find new methods and ideas that the judges have never seen before. To address these concerns, I have worked to design a cost-effective titanium anodizing process by testing different grades of titanium, surface preparations, application solutions, brushes (to apply the solution), masking methods, and voltages to attain a range of colors and then have judged the techniques based on the elements of art (the aspects of art that determine how pleasing to the eye an art piece is). To accurately test my different ideas, I chose multiple different ways to do the art and based my choice off of the consistency and controllability of results as well as the cost of each material. After these tests, I have successfully developed a way for titanium anodizing to be implemented into both a personal art project and an art class room in a safe, cost effective, and creative way.

Logan Hartsough
Grade-4 Project Number- 101
Title: Should I Drink That?
--The Environmental Protection Agency has set clean water guidelines to ensure safe drinking water for all citizens. These guidelines must be met by cities and towns, but are not necessarily required by other water sources such as ponds, streams and lakes. I wanted to know what is the best water source near me for drinkable water. My hypothesis is filtered well water would be the best source of drinkable water. I used six water quality kits to test six local water sources; filtered well water, city water, bottled water, pond water, melted snow, and swamp water. I tested each source for total alkalinity, total chlorine, total hardness, iron, copper, nitrates and nitrites and recorded each and compared each to Environmental Protection Agency acceptance levels. I determined the best water source near me is the filtered well water from my house. Filtered well water passed all EPA standards, followed by city water, bottled water, melted snow water, pond water and swamp water. I learned the water sources near me were mostly acceptable to drink and contain nutrients or chemicals that are acceptable to drink if in small amounts.

Joseph Havens
Grade-10 Project Number- 329
Title: AM Radio Transmitter
--In this experiment, I tested which AM radio transmitter designs work best. AM radio is a primitive technology for transmitting information using radio waves. It is still in use today in many applications. Even cell phones use a variant of AM to transmit data (Poole). In this experiment, I proposed that if I make specific modifications to a simple transmitter design, then I will get increased signal strength, because the modifications will increase the output power of the transmitter. The best design for carrier wave (CW) amplitude modulation, commonly used to transmit morse code, was Modifications #2 and #3 on the 20 meter-band antenna, with a received signal strength of about -58 dBm. The best design for transmitting an audio signal was Modification #3, also on the 20 meter-band antenna, with a received signal strength of about -58 dBm. The 20-meter band antenna is a wire dipole antenna tuned for about 14.2 MHz.
Fort Wayne

Ryland Hayes
Grade-6 Project Number- 134
Title: Unclean fingers - unclean readings
--My essential question for this science fair project this year is “does having unclean fingers result in inaccurate blood glucose test readings?” My prediction for the experiment was that unclean fingers would produce inaccurate readings on the test meter. Materials/Procedure - The procedure for this project was performed using a Bayer blood glucose kit and these substances: Coca-Cola, Dawn, grape jelly, an orange, whipped cream, and ketchup. A volunteer test subject tested her blood glucose with clean fingers, then tested the same finger again after rubbing it in each of the above substances several times to produce an average blood glucose reading. Results-The results indicated that clean fingers read approximately 120 on the Bayer meter while unclean fingers read anywhere from 120-500 based on the number of carbohydrates in the tested substance. Whipped cream, which only had one carb per serving only raised the blood glucose reading around five points. Coca-Cola with 48 carbs per serving raised the blood glucose around 350 points. Conclusion - My hypothesis that unclean fingers would produce inaccurate readings was correct. The results showed that if a substance with carbohydrates was on the finger being tested, blood glucose readings would be higher than a reading received from a clean finger. It is confirmed that it is important to clean your finger before testing your blood glucose to be sure the meter is providing an accurate reading.
Terre Haute

Anna Heck
Grade-6 Project Number- 129
Title: Which Essential Oil Interacts with Petrochemicals at the Fastest Rate?
--Petrochemicals are chemicals obtained from petroleum and natural gases. My research question was, do essential oils interact with petrochemicals and, if so, which essential oil interacts with petrochemicals the fastest? My hypothesis was that if I apply essential oils to an item with petrochemicals, the oils and petrochemicals will interact. Also, that the essential oils will interact with the petrochemicals at different rates, with peppermint interacting at the fastest rate. I used 3 items to test my hypothesis Styrofoam cups, balloons, and shampoo. I laid the item (except for the balloons) on a plate and added 5 drops of one essential oil. While I added the oil, somebody started the timer. I waited until I saw a reaction between the essential oil and the petrochemicals. I found that the orange and tea tree essential oils had the fastest reaction. I also found that some essential oils took a long time to create a reaction or did not react. The first part of my hypothesis was correct, but the second part was wrong. Future questions I have include whether the faster reaction with the orange and tea tree essential oils was caused by something special with the tea tree and oranges and whether the essential oil must physically meet the petrochemicals to create reaction. To improve my test, I need to make sure the containers for the other essential oils are closed and to make sure anything the petrochemical touches does not have any leftover essential oil.
Fort Wayne

Sydney Hefty
Grade-9 Project Number- 317
Title: The Effects of Acetic Acid Concentrations as a Natural Herbicide
--Sustainable agriculture is more than a catchy phrase; it is the natural law approach to feeding mankind in the future without stripping the earth of its natural resources. The purpose of this project is to determine the most effective concentration rate of acetic acid along with effects to soil pH. The acetic acid used for this research is industrial strength 200 grain white vinegar. The literature review found the ideal pH of soil should be between 5.5 to 6.5 in order to grow healthy crops. The hypothesis is the 20% vinegar concentration will have the most effective kill rate with all weed types along with no impact to soil pH as determined through the literature review. However, this solution will also have the highest cost on a per acre basis. The Method used was to spray the 12 different test plots with its respective formula and record pH of each test plot. The results of my research show that the 20% vinegar concentrate solution had the best kill rate, while still maintaining a constant pH. This was consistent with the literature review. In conclusion, alternative methods of weed control exist. Best recommendations for practice is to spray a nonselective 20% vinegar natural herbicide across the field prior to planting when weeds are in the three to five leaf stage and the temperature is above sixty five degrees. However, the cost per acre as seen in table 13 are prohibitive to practical application.

Gabe Hefty
Grade-10 Project Number- 334
Title: Microbial Fuel Cell: Waste to Energy Innovation
-- This research studies the electricity producing capability in bacteria found in soil and horse manure. The purpose was to determine if enough electricity could be generated by a microbial cell powered by soil and horse manure mixtures to light a 100-watt bulb. The procedure and methods used required multiple steps. To begin, one must obtain a microbial fuel cell kit from the Science Buddies store. Then, one must complete the lab included in the kit to understand the technology needed to complete the research. Next, horse manure and soil must be collected from an uncontaminated source. Ratios to test shall be declared as 100% soil, 75% soil with 25% horse manure, 50% soil with 50% horse manure, 25% soil with 75% horse manure, and 100% horse manure. Ratios must be prepared and the microbial cells test kit must be set up and the steps listed in the kit shall be followed. Five repetitions of each ratio must be completed with the results from the multimeter recorded. The results showed the 50% soil with 50% horse manure produced 376 volts which proved to produce better than all other ratios. These ratios only produced as follows from next best to worst: the 25% soil with 75% horse manure produced 359 volts, the 100% horse manure produced 341 volts, the 75% soil with 25% horse manure produced 135 volts, and the 100% soil produced 11 volts. In conclusion, the 50% soil with 50% horse manure produced the most power. Thus, by increasing the volume of the microbial fuel cell to 720,000,000 cm3, a 100-watt bulb can be powered. However, the 238,413.67 cm3 watts per five-gallon bucket it would take 301.99 buckets to power just one, one-hundred-watt bulb to light, thus this procedure is not practical with current technology and demands.

Gabrielle Heiser
Grade-9 Project Number- 304
Title: Teens and Technology: The Negative Effects of Technology on Generation Z
--The purpose of this action research is to inform readers about the effects of technology on Generation Z. Through the group's literature review, it was discovered that most research stated technology affected teens in negative ways. The research said that technology could affect mental and physical health, sleep, and relationships. This led to the hypothesis that technology had a negative effect on Generation Z. The group then did further research by surveying their classmates and trying an experiment on themselves. A survey was sent out to all of the freshmen at Adams Central. The survey asked questions about technology usage and its effects. A technology usage chart was also completed by the researchers for a self-experiment. The chart used ratings to determine how long the group members had spent on that particular technology in that day and how they felt physically, mentally, and socially. The results of both the survey and self-experiment did not support the hypothesis made based on the research from the literature review. However, the group noticed a design flaw in their survey and experiment so they created a new survey with more specific questions and a new self-experiment with more detailed emotion options. The initial results from the second survey supported the original hypothesis and information in the literature review. Further research is needed to better determine the results of technology on Generation Z. The authors have created a second technology chart for this future research.

Christian Heitmiller
Grade-12 Project Number- 370
Title: Creating a Filter for a SNM Detector
--Detection of special nuclear material (SNM) is an important security task of the 21st century. The Acoustically Tensioned Metastable Fluid Detector (ATMFD) can detect the neutron signal from SNM. The ATMFD uses acoustic power introduced into acetone to create negative pressure and cavitate when a neutron strikes a fluid nucleus. The researcher designed, created, and applied a filter to eliminate background noise in cavitation signals from an ATMFD neutron detector. Experiments used a PuBe source to induce neutron events and thus cavitations. The noise, mixed with the desired cavitation signals, is produced by the acoustic driving of the ATMFD. When the noise is filtered out, the resulting cavitation signals are much easier to see and analyze. A passband was decided upon and a circuit designed for this purpose. Characterization was performed using a wave-form generator and oscilloscope to compare input and output amplitudes. The final results of the filter design effectively reduced background signals, improving the important cavitation signal to drive noise ratio.

Austin Hesters
Title: No Hands No Worries
--My project is my design of an automatic feeder that uses two timers, a transformer, gear motor, auger and a hopper to feed a small animal. I hypothesized that it would take five minutes for one cup of food to go through the entire auger, (starting from the beginning) and into the food dish. I also hypothesized it would take three minutes for one cup of food (starting at the end) to go through the auger into a food dish. However, it took twenty five minutes for the food starting at the beginning and eighteen minutes for the feed starting at the end. Everything else about my project worked. For example, the wiring, motor and auger all worked fine. Note: only stuffed, fake animals were used in the project.

Kaelin Holm
Grade-11 Project Number- 357
Title: Fire Fighting Robot
--Fires can be very dangerous. Fires start wildfires that destroy wildlife, do damage to home and property, and create dangerous chemical fires. The fire department is always on call in case of an out of control fire. Fire Fighters always risk their lives to fight fires that can easily turn into infernos. They risk burns, carbon monoxide poisoning, and buildings collapsing on top of them. This project is based on the Trinity Collage firefighting robot contest. The contest challenges students to build a fire fighting robot that could lessen the risks of firefighters face in their jobs. My robot does not fight infernos, but it can tell where a small candle fire is a put it out. It can be controlled by a controller. The robot uses temperature sensors to detect the flame’s heat. If it finds a significant heat difference, it will slowly go to the heat, then when it’s close, it will spray water, until the fire is out. There will be sensors that can makes sure that the robot won’t hit walls. For the robotic base, I am using Adafruit’s CurrieBot. It has three tiers, the bottom tier holds the batteries for the motors, the second tier is batteries for the Arduino. The top tier is for the Arduino and the motor shield. The motor shield is placed on top of the Arduino. Arduino 101 is the “brain” of robot, it’s a single board microcontroller. I can program it to move, detect different temperatures, and spray the water. It will be autonomous, meaning it can move itself away from obstacles. What makes an Arduino 101 different than an Arduino UNO is that the 101 is Bluetooth capable. It can be controlled with my phone with the BlueFruit app.

Olivia Holman
Title: Water Quality
--The experiment was conducted to find the cleanest, and most cost efficient water purification method. I hypothesized that the water purification method distillation would be the safest to drink and the most cost effective, and I believed the other methods would not be more cost effective and will not be safer to drink. To establish the control it was found what the goal product of each procedure would be and tap water fit the requirements. First the dirty water (Wabash River) and the control group (tap water) were analyzed. Then the procedures for chlorination, boiling, and distillation were performed on the dirty water and analyzed to see how they compared to both the dirty and tap water. It was found that the distilled water was the cleanest with boiled and chlorinated water coming in second and third respectively. Chlorinated water was the cheapest with boiling and distillation coming in second and third respectively. However this experiment was subject to error, for example, the temperature was not taken of the water beforehand. In conclusion, the results support that the water purification method distillation yields the cleanest water while the water purification method of chlorination is the most cost efficient.

Levi Hrabos
Grade-11 Project Number- 343
Title: Testing the Viability of Various Organisms as Pioneer Species for Nuclear Contamination Sites
--With the possibility of nuclear radiation being released in an environment the purpose of the experiment is to determine if Physarum polycephalum, Armadillididae, Gryllidae, and Tinopyrum intermedium can withstand high level radiation levels and act like a pioneering species. If these organisms are exposed to high levels of radiation then their life spans will be inhibited with various degrees of mortality. To test this hypothesis, Physarum polycephalum, Armadillididae, and Gryllidae were enclosed in Petri dishes. While Thrinopyrum intermedium were kept in clay pots. There were 25 trails for each group, with 20 trails being exposed to differing amounts of radiation and 5 control with no radiation. All organisms were taken to a hospital and radiated by a technician at 100 rads, 200 rads, 300 rads, and 400 rads of beta radiation produced by a linear accelerator used for cancer radiation therapy. The results for Physarum polycephalum showed that a slower growth rate occurred with increasing amounts of radiation. A student t-test was performed and found that at 400 rads the data were high significant in all trials (t = 4.88< t0.01 = 3.36), and 300 rads the data were significant in all trials (t = 2.33< t0.05 =2.31). The survivorship of Armadillididae and Gryllidae supported the hypothesis because there were less organisms alive after 5 days. The colorimeter test for Thrinopyrum intermedium showed that the chlorophyll content dropped after one day of radiation exposure, but then increased over a 5 day period, close to the control values. In conclusion, the hypothesis was supported by all organisms besides Thrinopyrum intermedium.

Mackenzie Hunt
Grade-10 Project Number- 332
Title: Do We Have Back Pain Beat?
--There are people with chronic back pain that cripple their ability to function and enjoy life starting when they are just kids. There hasn’t been any way to really help them without completely restricting them or going into surgical procedures, but I aim to fix this dilemma. I believe that if I connect the superior and inferior parts of the spine, then there will be a lessened chance of malalignment or segmental locking, which can cause immense amounts of pain within people with HMS. This product could be the thing to give people an opportunity they had never had before.

Tom Huynh
Title: Shining Light on the Water and Electricity Crisis
--Modern technology creates many problems such as climate change and the exploitation of energy such as that of fossil fuels. These problems seem as if they have no solution and that the fate of Earth is hopeless. However, the concept of my project is to design, to engineer, and to manufacture a product that is able to solve all of these problems. It will consist of two chambers, which will take in air as an energy source. It will then separate into two apparatuses, which will accomplish the tasks of supplying sustainable energy in the form of light and exportable energy in an outlet and supply a sustainable amount of clean drinking water. The project resulted in a final product that was able to fill the requirements set by the engineering goal and the research question. The product has since been sent to a manufacture and has been sent all around the world and has successfully solved the water and energy crisis in the region that is using it. This project shows that all problems are solvable, no matter how improbable they seem to be.
Fort Wayne

Grace Jackson
Grade-12 Project Number- 373
Title: Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Brown County Soils
--I conducted my experiment in order to investigate the human influence on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by taking soil samples different distances from nature trails at the state park in Brown County, Indiana. I used a gas chromatograph in order to calculate the concentration in parts per million of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, and methane in each soil sample. I had the known concentration from injecting the three standard gases into the gas chromatograph and used those standards to create a calibration curve when the gas chromatograph gave the area (μV/min) of each sample gas. Using the slope formula from each standard curve, I found the concentration of each greenhouse gas from all 18 samples. I discovered twofold: generally, the concentration of GHG increased over time and there is no correlation between basic human activity and greenhouse gas concentration in soil on the trails of Brown County state park.

Alayna Jacobus
Grade-4 Project Number- 103
Title: Penny Wars: The Cleanest Penny
--Which brand of cola will shine a penny best? Using three colas: Coca-Cola, Pepsi, and Diet Pepsi, plus water for my control, I tested how well each liquid would shine a penny. Three pennies per liquid were measured on a shininess scale of 1 to 10 then soaked in the liquid for 24 hours. I hypothesized Coca-Cola would shine a penny best. The results were that the water control did not shine any pennies. All three colas shined the pennies to approximately the same shininess. The conclusion of the experiment was that there was no difference among the colas in how well they shined the pennies.

Bowen Jing
Grade-12 Project Number- 366
Title: Targeted Screen of Genes Involved in Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Development
--Mechanisms involved in neuromuscular junction (NMJ) morphogenesis and active zone (AZ)-GluR receptor alignment are an active field of research in Drosophila neuroscience. I investigated four poorly characterized genes for regulatory roles at the NMJ: 1) Ig-CAM family member Basigin, 2) calcium-sensitive kinase CASK, 3) putative N-myc homologue CG2082, and 4) kinase Par-1. I knocked down these genes in neuronal tissue using RNAi and imaged NMJs with immunofluorescence microscopy. AZ-GluR colocalization defects were found in all four lines (p < 0.001), implicating the genes in promoting AZ-GluR cluster alignment. The Basigin knockdown line exhibited significantly more branching than the wild-type (p = 0.023), suggesting that Basigin downregulates NMJ branching. Finally, knockdown of each of the four genes reduced bouton area and AZ count per bouton (p < 0.001), implicating the genes in upregulating bouton size. These are novel findings in the literature for these four genes, representing a meaningful step toward a better understanding of the molecular processes at the NMJ. This understanding has medical significance due to the involvement of synapse biology in neurodegenerative disorders.
West Lafayette

Parker Jou
Grade-11 Project Number- 350
Title: The Impact of Rotational Damping on Applied Systems
--A well-known phenomenon in nature is that of flocking, or collective motion with observed examples being the behavior of flocks of birds, self-assembling nanoparticles, and bacteria. Extensive research has been done with several models being developed to understand the phenomenon. However, these models are unrealistic because they assume that individuals turn instantaneously. Furthermore, the lack of effective evaluation tools to understand fully the characteristics of collective motion limits their applications to real world systems and our understanding of collective motion. In this study, a new model is developed which introduces the concept of the application of rotational damping to individual turns in a system of self-propelled particles and two novel measurements, saturation time and influence density, are created in order to analyze system behavior. Saturation time is defined as the time for a system to reach relative order and influence density is a measurement of the compactness of the flocks of particles. Simulations with the model found that damping has no impact on the universality class of the system yet has significant effects on the critical point of the temperature-based phase transitions and dynamic behavior of the system. The influence density is maximized with a specific finite nonzero amount of damping and the saturation time is minimized at a different specific amount of damping. The new model can be applied to analyze real-world systems such as the aforementioned flying patterns of birds and to design artificial systems such as drones to optimize their behavior or meet certain system specifications like the optimal flock density for land survey. The study is a study into the fundamental collective behavior of self-propelled particles and has wide application into a variety of areas such as mechanical, biological, and molecular systems of self-propelled particles.

Ian Joyce
Title: Got High Sugar? Bring the Heat!
--Does capsaicin in peppers decrease the amount of glucose in solution? Do the hotter peppers decrease more capsaicin or is it the milder peppers? Capsaicin is the chemical that makes food hot/spicy. I read that in some parts of the world people treat diabetes with capsaicin. I think the capsaicin binds to the glucose to control a diabetics blood sugar level. Different peppers have different amounts of capsaicin. My hypothesis is that the pepper with the most capsaicin will bind the most glucose, which means the hottest peppers will decrease the most amount of glucose in solution. The experimental results show that the amount of glucose remained constant in the green bell pepper solution (the negative control) and was decreased in each of the hot pepper solutions (all containing capsaicin). However, it was not found that the hottest peppers on the Scoville Heat Unit decreased the glucose by the largest amount. It was actually one of the mildest peppers that resulted in the biggest glucose decrease. If I were to do this experiment again I would do more trials, and I would use glucose powder because it is easier than glucose syrup to measure and mix into the solution. I would also determine if the decrease in glucose is due only to the capsaicin. The confirmation that peppers do decrease the glucose amount in a solution is helpful because this suggests that people with too much glucose in their bloodstream could use hot peppers to lower their blood sugar.

Victor Karwacinski
Grade-11 Project Number- 347
Title: Non-Thermal, Atmospheric Plasma: A Means of Water Purification
--Exposure to organic environmental contaminants in water supplies can lead to adverse health effects. Non-thermal plasmas have been proposed for waste-water treatment as a means to degrade organic contaminants without the risks that traditional methods of water purification bring, which include introducing harmful byproducts. In this work, a non-thermal, atmospheric-pressure direct current (DC) plasma was used to degrade methylene blue (MB). This acted as a model system for using plasma to destroy organic contaminants in water. The effects of both air and argon plasmas were observed on MB solutions over various short time intervals. At exposure times above 10 minutes, argon plasma was more effective than air plasma. For both plasmas, longer exposure time led to greater chemical conversion, and the solutions did not recover their color after stirring, implying an irreversible reaction involving MB. To investigate the role hydroxyl radicals played, glycerol and 2- propanol were used as scavengers. Addition of glycerol to solutions after argon plasma treatment resulted in minimal MB recovery whereas addition of 2-propanol induced an approximately 13% recovery. The results suggest that OH radicals are partially responsible for MB degradation. However, there are limitations in measuring OH radical concentrations present or reacted in the solution. More research should be conducted to better understand degradation interactions. This model system furthers our understanding of the role of plasma-induced chemistry in water treatment applications. Elucidating the chemistry responsible for contaminant degradation may lead to the development of alternative systems for water purification using non-thermal, atmospheric plasmas.

Zelton Kay
Grade-11 Project Number- 353
Title: Micro Windturbine
--In this project I created a micro wind turbine which is capable of producing 1.5 volts of electricity quite easily. I not only 3D printed parts, but also had to plan the interior of the gearbox and how the hub would turn the motor. Though I am not done with this project my results so far have been positive. Eventually it will have a stand with a wall socket to charge a device, can be utilized by a diverse group of consumers such as hikers, citizens in 3rd world countries, and people who want to help the environment.

Cannon Kelp
Grade-12 Project Number- 369
Title: Toxicity of G. Lucidum Extract in Daphnia
--Daphnia are commonly used to test the toxicity of different chemicals. I, specifically, used Daphnia pulicaria to determine the toxicity of a solution made from G. Lucidum and 50 percent ethanol. Ganoderma Lucidum is more commonly known as reishi mushroom extract. Recently, it has been used as an herbal supplement for a variety of ailments. In the test, there were three experimental groups. Each was exposed to a different concentration of of the prepared solution. The highest concentration, treatment 3, exposes the Daphnia to a concentration of ethanol that is greater than the LC50 determined by another test. Because of this, I hypothesised that the third treatment group would be considered a toxic concentration for the daphnia. My results did not provide sufficient data to reject my hypothesis.

Andrew Kinne
Grade-7 Project Number- 166
Title: 3D Printed Beams: Exploring the Effect of Infill Percentage and Geometry on Fracture Strength in 3D-Printed Beams
--QUESTION How do infill percentage and geometry impact the fracture strength of 3D-printed object? RESEARCH There are a lot of factors that would determine the maximum fracture strength (also known as breaking point) of a 3D printed object. Probably the first and foremost of these are the infill percentage. Infill percentage is the amount of space that is occupied by material inside of a 3D-printed object. As an example, if you printed a cube with an infill of 100% and then a cube with an infill of 25%, the cube filled 100% would have no gaps or air pockets while the 25% cube would have several. Fernandez (Sept 2016) showed that typically, the more the infill, the stiffer and more resilient the object gets. Another variable that can impact fracture strength would be the infill shape. This is the shape the printer uses when it is printing the inside of the object. 3D printers print in layers. These layers build upon themselves and melt together to create the object. The inside layer is created by repeating a geometric shape or fractal. Existing research shows that perhaps infill geometry might not matter as much as infill percentage or material used, because all of the infill geometries offer roughly the same strengths (Cain, 2018). Other factors that impact fracture strength include temperature and flexibility (Fernandez et al, 2016). Another significant factor in the breaking point of an object is the temperature that material is heated to and the rate at which it cools (Cooling/Ultimaker, 2018). After researching possible variables that could be used for my experiment on fracture strength, I decided to vary the infill percentage and the infill geometry. I chose these factors because although the material temperature and print settings are important factors in strength, these are less important and a lot harder to test than infill percentage and geometry. For my experiment, I will be testing the Honeycomb, Rectilinear, and Hilbert curve infill geometries. For each of these, I will print a 1cm by 1cm by 10cm prism with fill percentages of 25, 50, 75, and 100%. I will have two tests for every variation and average the results. HYPOTHESIS My hypothesis is that the object with an infill percentage of 100% and rectilinear infill geometry will have the highest fracture strength. I think this will be true because an infill percentage of 100% would probably be stronger than a lower percentage, because there would be more material taking the strain of the force put upon it. The fill geometry I would chose as the strongest would be the rectilinear. I think this will result in the highest fracture strength because the rectangle has a reasonably strong shape and it is very strong overall. The results of the tests proved the hypothesis correct, as the rectilinear at 100% had the highest fracture strength – in fact, it did not break at the maximum test weight of 150 lbs. Another thing I found was that in addition to holding the most weight, the rectilinear also held the most kilograms per gram of plastic overall. The ratio of weight held to mass of brick was 5.92 kg per gram for the 100% rectilinear. The rectilinear was also the winner in the 75% and 50% infill percentages, with 5.28 kg/g and 4.67 kg/g, while the Hilbert was the best at 25% infill, with 5.43 kg/g. This is interesting, because the Hilbert infill had the lowest breaking point for all of the infill percentages; however, it was also the lightest due to the space in the infill design. This would mean that in any project where you would need high fracture strength, you would want to choose a rectilinear design. However, if you were going to need a very light object, then you would use a Hilbert fill.
Terre Haute

Cole Klinedinst
Grade-7 Project Number- 161
Title: How does Water Flow Effect Electricity Generated by a Kelvin Electrostatic Generator
--This experiment was about building and testing a Kelvin Electrostatic Generator, which is a type of electric generator from 1867 that uses falling water and no moving parts to create small sparks. The problem being solved was "How will water flow rate affect the time between sparks produced by a Kelvin Electrostatic Generator?" It was hypothesized that if the amount of water going through the generator is raised, the electricity produced will increase. Also, time between sparks will decrease by 15% every time the flow rate increases by 10%. The procedure begins with building the generator. To find the flow rate for testing, place two cups under the nozzles and hold them for one minute. Measure the ml output and fine-tune the flow rate. Record the times between sparks for 15 sparks. Repeat at five different flow rates. The results partially proved the hypothesis. The prediction that more water equals lower time between sparks was correct. The predicted percents were off by 18.92%. During this experiment, much was learned about properties of electricity and traveling of ions, among other things.

Taylor Knox
Title: To Read...Or Not To Read?
--The purpose of my project was to determine if reading via technology is more effective than reading in person. Before I started my project, I thought that regardless of age, the comprehension level of children will be higher when a book is communicated to them personally compared to when it is presented to them via technology. In addition to that, the comprehension gap between reading in person to a child and reading with technology will be greater with younger children. In order to do this, first, I found a book with a print date from many years ago which the participants most likely have not read before. Second, I took pictures of each page in the book and made a voice recording of me reading each page. Next, I made a slideshow by merging the voice recordings with their corresponding pictures. Then, I made a basic comprehension test consisting of five multiple choice questions. After that, I gathered several classrooms to participate. In half of the classrooms, the presentation of the story was played. In the other half of the classrooms, I read the story to the participants in person. In both cases, students were given the comprehension test. Overall, my hypothesis statements were correct. In both grade levels, participants could comprehend the story better when it was communicated through personal interaction. However, the significance of that difference diminished as the students aged.

Grace Kobylanski
Grade-8 Project Number- 194
Title: enviROnment BOT
--The purpose of this project was to build a robot that can aid people with watering their plants and help create the start of just one solution to global water shortages. The enviROnment BOT was built to help people water their plants more efficiently, by measuring the moisture content of the soil and giving the soil the right amount of water, so that ways it is not overwatered or underwatered. The enviROnment BOT can also be the start to just one solution for global water shortages, because it only gives the amount of water that the soil needs to stay hydrated, therefore conserving water. On a bigger scale, this robot could conserve a lot more water. The enviROnment BOT could be used in the agricultural field to conserve water when watering large amounts of crops. The enviROnment BOT was tested by measuring how fast the soil moisture sensor could detect tap water, pure water, and distilled water. The hypothesis for this experiment was: If tap water, pure water, and distilled water are tested to see how fast the soil moisture sensor can detect them, then tap water and pure water would be detected faster. The hypothesis was correct. On average, the tap water and pure water were detected 9.685 seconds before the distilled water. The soil moisture sensor works by measuring the levels of conductivity of the water in the soil. Since tap water and pure water are both conductors, the soil moisture sensor can detect these two waters faster than distilled water, a insulator, therefore the hypothesis was correct.

Baelyn Koester
Grade-11 Project Number- 339
Title: Effects of Local Water Source Contamination
--This experiment was designed to test if local water used as a growth medium for E. Coli would cause mutations within the bacteria that could indicate potentially dangerous contamination. My water samples were from Greasy Creek, Salt Creek, the schools tap water, and for my control variable I used autoclaved distilled water. The goal of my experiment was to use the extracted DNA, perform an enzyme digestion and a gel electrophoresis to compare the DNA between samples to see if any mutations may have occurred as shown through variation in the DNA lengths. Any differences in the DNA would be a sign of mutations to support a carcinogenic source. After digesting the DNA using two different enzymes, our results showed were inconclusive due to the resolution of our gel. We did notice variation in our DNA samples, but that may be due to incomplete enzyme digestion or poor gel run and would require additional runs for repeatability. Future study is needed with higher resolution gels or other DNA techniques to determine if the E Coli is a valid biological tester for potentially mutagenic water contamination.

Emelia Koester
Grade-9 Project Number- 313
Title: What antacid is the most effective in HCL
--In my experiment, I tested to see which brand of antacid could neutralize hydrochloric acid the best. During my experiment, I found out that the Liquid Antacid was the best antacid used for neutralizing .1 molar of hydrochloric acid. I also found out that the Milk of Magnesia was the worst at neutralizing the hydrochloric acid and that there neither the tablets nor the liquid antacids were better than one another. This is proved by the results in my project because one of the liquid antacid was the best at neutralizing the acid while the other liquid antacid was the worst at it. Although the equate Liquid Antacid proved to be the most effective at neutralizing the acid, the Milk of Magnesia proved to be the least effective.

Vinay Krishnan
Grade-8 Project Number- 174
Title: Real Time Facial Recognition Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
--Facial recognition as a biometric for security identification is becoming more prevalent. We have created a unique identifier using principal component analysis (PCA) for facial recognition that can accurately identify faces. A programming language called Python was used to generate the unique numerical identifier for facial images. Utilizing this code, a series of data defined the features on the image. PCA was used to integrate the data to generate the unique numerical identifier for each image. The Python program generated a dataset of facial images that were stored in a Trained Memory. We then looked at the accuracy of image retrieval from this Training dataset. The validity of the method used to generate a unique identifier for each face image was confirmed. The accuracy of retrieval varied from 50% to 97%. The program at this stage of development is incapable to allow for variations in image quality, lighting conditions or changes in facial features over time. These conditions may have contributed to the low accuracy retrieval. In conclusion, we were able to successfully program and utilize PCA to generate a unique identifier number array for each facial image. In four of the five images, we show an 83% to 97% accuracy in retrieving the image. This methodology of using PCA for unique identification of facial images could be used in future security applications such as law enforcement, school security systems and other real-world applications.

Shreya Krishnan
Grade-7 Project Number- 158
Title: SoLarge Energy!
-- --Purpose: The purpose of this project was to experimentally investigate and understand the factors that contribute to determining the best geographical locations for solar cell array installations for maximum power-output. Hypothesis: The power-output of solar cells (the dependent variable) will linearly increase with each of the following (independent variables): A. the intensity of incident light, B. the angle of the incident light, and, C. the ambient temperature. Null Hypothesis: The power-output of solar cells will not linearly increase with any of the independent variables listed in the hypothesis. Procedure: First, a baseline experiment was run under daylight. Regular-interval measurements were made of the power-output of the solar cell, temperature and light intensity. Subsequently, three controlled experiments were carried out. Only one independent variable was varied in each of these experiments: the light intensity, the angle of incident light, and the solar cell temperature. Results: The baseline experiment demonstrated that solar light intensity, solar cell power-output and surface temperature all vary during the day. The three controlled experiments show that: as light intensity increases, the solar power-output increases linearly; as the incident angle of light increases, the solar power-output increases non-linearly; and, as the temperature increases, the solar power-output decreases linearly. Conclusion: The results only support hypothesis A. and not B. and C. I conclude that the ideal location for solar panels is cold locations with ample sunlight. Latitude determines the best angle for mounting solar panels. Installed solar panels need ventilation to cool them.

Arda Kurama
Grade-7 Project Number- 153
Title: Can I Guess Your Password?
-- This project aims to inform people on how to have a safer cyber life by answering the question: What type of password is easiest to hack? The hypothesis is that a completely random password made of letters, numbers, and punctuation would be hardest to crack because it uses all characters. To test this hypothesis, a Python 3 password cracking code from Science Buddies was altered and enhanced. Then, sample passwords were created, converted into MD5 hash, and tested in mixed order. The constants were the computer, code, and password length. The independent variable was the password and the dependent variable was the number of guesses to hack the password. The hypothesis was found to be incorrect. The pronounceable random password (created with only letters and is pronounceable) took more guesses than the completely random password for the following reason: The Brute Force attack was used to guess both passwords. This method spins a 74 character dial, from a-z, A-Z, 0-9, then punctuation, in order. The code took a longer time to guess the pronounceable random password because this password started with the letter t while the completely random password started with the letter m, which is earlier on the dial. It is concluded that more sample passwords should be tested to generalize the findings. Password length was found to be critical as it can increase the time to guess exponentially. Passwords with only numbers are weak. Finally, common dictionary words can be guessed nearly instantaneously, whether long or short.

Aydin Kurama
Grade-4 Project Number- 106
Title: What is the Best Insulator?
--The purpose of my project is to determine the best insulator to keep a house warm in winter and cool in summer. This is important because we use a lot of energy for heating and air conditioning. My hypothesis is that a hard insulation board would be the best because it would block the outside air from coming in and inside air from going out. I tested my hypothesis by putting different types of insulators inside a cardboard box and heating the box using a hair drier. I measured the temperatures inside the box both during heating and after I turned the hair drier off. I found out that I could make a better insulator using household materials than a hard insulation board. But, the insulation board was the best out of all of the other insulators I tested.

Alexandria Laker
Grade-12 Project Number- 377
Title: The Influence of Thawing Temperature on Bovine Semen Commercially Frozen in Straws
--This experiment is testing the influence of different thawing temperatures on bovine semen commercially frozen in straws. In order to do this test, 8 straws of semen from the same bull were subjected to thaw temperatures of 32F, 68F, 95F and 203F for 30 seconds. Following the thawing process, the semen was then incubated at 98.6F for 5 hours. The effects of these different treatments were evaluated by the change in the percentage of live cells. Warmer thaw temperatures increased the percent of live cells. Of the four different thaw temperatures, 95F provided the most desirable outcome of live cells. This agriscience project contributes to an update on microbiology. Further research would be to conduct the same study on a larger variety of semen straws from different bulls and compare the results.

Isaac Lammers
Grade-10 Project Number- 335
Title: WiFi Deauthorization: Pentesting Network Security
--Since the invention of the terminal, computer based attacks have become a danger. Globally, multiple devices all communicate with each other to create what is termed, “The Internet of Things.” Devices are flawed in multiple ways, but it is what they are connected to that poses a threat. The attack focuses on the vulnerabilities of an 802.11 Wi-Fi network. When a device communicates with a router, it sends a signal and receives a response. The client sends an authentication response; and, the access point (AP) sends one back. A deauthentication attack occurs when the attacker comes in between the client and the access point by sending “deauthentication requests.” These attacks are dangerous in various ways but they most notably are used to set up what is called “a man in the middle attack.” In 2009, patches were released to specifically combat these attacks. However, these patches have not been universally applied. The hypothesis I am testing is as follows: If a deauthentication attack is launched on a target network in the Greater Lafayette area, then the target network will disconnect the target client, because the network will be utilizing the 802.11 Wi-Fi protocol. Data was collected from 200 randomly selected locations around the Greater Lafayette Area testing for deauthentication vulnerabilities. I also looked at network encryption to get a sense of how secure the tested network was. The results showed that 82% of all tested networks were vulnerable to deauthentication attacks. Additionally, of the 200 tested networks 57.5% had no encryption.

Griffin Lawrence
Title: Pitch Perfect Memory
--I was curious to know if music affected your memory because there were lots of potential variables to test and it sounded interesting. My hypothesis was that music would affect your memory and that younger age groups would do better than older age groups. I also thought that 80’s music would help people remember better, Heavy Metal music would make them do worse, and Classical music wouldn't help much. For my experiment, I used the memory concentration game on the website and tested 71 people using a computer or iPad. The game measured how quickly and accurately someone could match 18 pairs of pictures. Males and females from four different age groups filled out the test questionnaire and took the test. They took it once normally (without music), once with Classical music, once with Heavy Metal music, once with 80’s music, and then one more time normally. I made graphs from the data comparing the variables. I found that music improved people's scores no matter what genre. I learned that females were faster and more accurate than males and that younger age groups did do better than older age groups. I also learned that whether you liked or disliked a type of music, it didn't really affect your results. This tells me that you may work more efficiently on day-to-day things if you're listening to music.

Christopher Lee
Grade-6 Project Number- 139
Title: Simulating Evolution From Mutation By Computer Simulation
----In this science fair project, I wanted to know, how does variation that happens in each mutation affect the evolutionary process? I made a simulation that simulates the evolutionary process of coloration. In this example, I used sheeps color. I made one particular colored sheep have a higher chance of survival by making life expectancy depend on the sheeps color. I measured how many sheep can evolve in 20 seconds for different variation levels. I ran the simulation one-hundred times on each variation. I did this experiment to find out if an increase in variation has a beneficial or harmful effect on evolution. My hypothesis was that if I increase the degree of variation that happens in a mutation, then the speed of evolution will also increase, because I assumed it will have a similar effect on increasing the speed of mutation. My hypothesis was not supported because the increase in variation did not always make a positive effect, while and a certain degree of variation made the most positive effect in the evolutionary process.
West Lafayette

Alivia Leeman
Grade-9 Project Number- 307
Title: Can detergents harm the enviornment
--The reason for this project was to inform people on the dangers of detergents in the environment. The experiment was to see what effect commercial, homemade, and eco-friendly detergents had on pill bugs and daphnia. What was found in this Experiment was that the commercial and the control stayed the same so that means the tide detergent wasn’t has harmful as was thought to be. The eco detergent slowly killed the pill bugs more and more everyday. Homemade detergent killed most pill bugs on the first day with only 3 living till the fifth day all organisms were dead. What was concluded from this experiment was that the hypothesis was proven wrong the original hypothesis was that the Tide would do most harm to the organisms. After the experiment what was found was that the eco and homemade detergent killed 2 pill bugs till the fifth day all were dead. The commercial and Tide didn’t do harm till the fifth day when all organisms died.

Nolan Linderman
Grade-6 Project Number- 143
Title: Energy Efficient
--My project was to determine the most efficient battery on the market and then to figure out how to make a new, even more efficient, battery and compare it to that best one. First, to find the most efficient on the market, I tested three different batteries and found that the Ravec was the most the efficient. (To do this, I hooked each 9 volt to a multimeter to make sure each had their maximum voltage. I created a circuit and ran each battery on it for an hour and thirty minutes. Then I hooked each to the voltage meter to see what the remaining voltage was in each battery.) For the second part of my experiment, I created a new type of battery. It was created from a tritium vial with two solar cells bandaged around that. (These solar cells were scavenged from a solar flower toy.) I ran my new battery on the same circuit the same amount time. After testing it multiple times, I found my new battery was much more efficient than the ones on the market. It only decreased by 0.1 volts over that 90 minute time span. But the market batteries all went down about 1.3 volts.

Andy Lipton
Grade-8 Project Number- 191
Title: Spicy Antibiotics: The Effect of Capsaicin on Bacteria Growth
--Antibiotics are medicines that are used to treat bacterial infections, but some bacteria are becoming resistant to these antibiotics. With this in mind, scientists are trying to find ways to make new antibiotics that kill more bacteria. To find what chili pepper killed the most bacteria, I used 7 different chili peppers with different levels of hotness. I first found how much capsaicin was in each of the peppers that I was using. The two chili peppers with the most capsaicin were the Ghost Pepper and the Carolina Reaper, while the Green Bell Pepper had no capsaicin. I then collected and grew bacteria from different parts of my house to test on. I found that the kitchen sample grew the most bacteria, and so I used my chili pepper extracts on kitchen bacteria. I found that the Habaneros, Cayenne, and Carolina Reaper blocked the most bacterial growth. Two things that I think were interesting in my experiment were that the Ghost Pepper did not kill as much bacteria as the best performing peppers, and that the Serrano pepper grew even more bacteria than my control experiment! I also did an experiment on E. coli bacteria. I used all of my pepper solutions, methanol, amoxicillin, and capsaicin. I found that most of the peppers grew more than the methanol test, but Green Bell Pepper grew fewer bacteria! I think it would be cool to do experiments with different bacteria, with more chili peppers and other substances that kill bacteria.

Hannah Luckey
Grade-6 Project Number- 128
Title: O' Christmas Tree, O' Christmas Tree, How FLAMMABLE Are Your Branches?
--Between 2011-2015, fire departments in the United States responded to approximately 800 house fires involving Christmas Trees according to the National Fire Protection Association. This experimentation sets out to see just how flammable Christmas Trees are if proper watering is not maintained. Two varieties of Christmas Trees were selected for this experiment: Scotch Pine and Blue Spruce. The two varieties were cut from their respective plots on the same day. Twenty-four branches of each tree variety were harvested and placed in 3 testing groups. Each branch was weighed prior to being placed in a testing group. Each of the testing groups were filled with 4000 ml of clear tap water. After each week of the four-week experiment, all samples were reweighed. Two samples were also removed each week and remained out of water from each of the 6 testing groups. Percentage of mass gained or lost was then calculated for each branch after each week. On the last day of the experiment, all samples were placed individually in a fireplace over a continuous flame (Sterno) to test for branch flammability. The time it took for each branch to combust and maintain a continuous flame was recorded. In conclusion, when averaging the data from the two tested varieties, the scotch pine groups retained more water than the blue spruce groups during the experimentation period but were more flammable at the end of the four-week experiment.
Fort Wayne

Dennis Mammolenti
Grade-12 Project Number- 382
Title: Which Cisplatin-Induced Genes are Associated with Nephrotoxicity?
--Cisplatin continually serves as one of the most prevalent and cheap chemotherapeutics today. On a global scale, around 2.2 million new patients are treated with cisplatin for cancers such as lung, testicular, ovarian, breast, head, neck, etc. While it proves oftentimes very effective (90% curative for testicular cancer), its non-specificity, unfortunately, leads to an array of potential challenges. Of these, the most common is nephrotoxicity, occurring in 33% of patients. Nephrotoxicity is a toxicity to your kidney; in the most severe circumstance, a patient may end up on dialysis for the rest of their life. This project sought to explore what genes associated nephrotoxicity. In determining gene association, one can works towards regulating associated genes, that way patients can focus on healing from the cancer itself, rather than having to also balance the extremely harmful potential challenges. In order to do this, HEK kidney cells were grown and qRT PCR method was utilized for the genes DDIT4, NEK2, SHMT2, and B2M (housekeeping gene) to determine fold change. It was determined that DDIT4 highly up-regulated, NEK2 down-regulated, and SHMT2 had constant regulation. This novel study concluded that the genes DDIT4 and NEK2 therefore associated with nephrotoxicity.

Jacob Martin
Grade-9 Project Number- 308
Title: The Effect of Oscillatoria on Flooded Glycine max
--The purpose of this project is to test if Glycine max can withstand a flood for a longer duration with the addition of Oscillatoria. If Oscillatoria is added to submerged Glycine max, then the plant will survive longer under the circumstances of field flooding. The result of field flooding can be devastating to farmers all across the world. A control group of five soybean plants was taken and put under 2.5 centimeters of water above the soil line. The three experiemental groups went under the same procedure as the control, but then a type of Cyanobacteria called Oscillatoria was added to each tank at different times. The plants that received Oscillatoria statistically survived better than the plants who did not receive Oscillatoria. Plants in the control group decreased in height by -28.78%. Experimental Group 1 decreased in height by -19.16, but experimental Groups 2 and 3 increaed by 26.28 and 33.63% respectively. All experimental Groups had nodules used for nitrogen fixation while the control group had no sign of any nodules. Dissolved oxygen increased after Oscillatoria application and pH levels remained stabile throughout the whole experiement. The t-Test results for Group 1 (intial Oscillatoria application) came back not significant (t=0.345

Hayden Martin
Title: Just Keep Flying
--Just one sheet of paper can lead to a whole lot of fun. All you have to know is how to fold and you can have a simple plane in a matter of minutes! But what design should you use to build the best plane? In this science project, I changed the designs of a paper planes and see how this affects its flight. I tested the various plane designs to test how far the planes flew.

Jacob Massom
Grade-9 Project Number- 305
Title: Can Plants Clean Water
--In this project, I was experimenting to determine if various types of plants could make water cleaner and safer to drink. The purpose of the project was to find a cheaper, more natural way to clean up drinkable water. It is very important to find a way to clean water for the countries that do not have easy access to drinkable water. Many adults and young children die due to unsafe drinking water. It was hypothesized that if the plant roots are larger, then the water will be cleaner. Cleanliness was based on the pH. Water samples were also tested for alkalinity, hardness, iron, copper, lead, nitrates, nitrites, and chlorine. Rain water was collected and used as the water being filtered. Rain water was poured through the plants and their roots and collected in a bucket under the plant. Additional samples were filtered through a bucket of soil and another water sample through a Brita Filter as control groups. Water in each bucket was tested with drinking water test strips, and the data was recorded. Results showed the unfiltered water had the lowest pH and the dill had the highest pH. Based on research I found out that the dill had the largest roots of the tested plants. This means that my hypothesis was not supported and that there was no correlation between root size and ability to filter water.

Julia Maxwell
Grade-11 Project Number- 352
Title: Effects of 5-HT7 Receptor Antagonists on Behaviors of Mice that Detect Drugs Used in the Treatment of Anxiety, Depression, and Schizophrenia
--5-HT7 receptors have been suggested to play a role in the regulation of psychiatric disorders. The experimental literature however is not fully consistent on this possibility. Two selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonists, DR-4004 and SB-269970, were evaluated in the present study in mouse models used to detect drugs used in anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia. A 5-HT-induced hypothermia assay was used to define the doses of DR-4004 and SB-269970 predicted to impact 5-HT7 receptors in vivo. Doses of two selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonists that blocked 5-HT-induced hypothermia, did not display significant anxioltyic-like (elevated plus maze; vogel conflict) or antidepressant-like efficacy (tail-suspension test) in mouse models. These compounds did demonstrate some antipsychotic-like properties in the PCP-induced hyperactivity assay and anxiolytic/anti-stress effects in the stress-induced cGMP assay. In this project, these data (obtained from mouse behavioral studies done previously by adult mentors/researchers) were statistically analyzed. The data are generally consistent with the experimental literature in that the evidence is mixed or not robust regarding the potential for selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonism in the therapeutics of these psychiatric disorders.

Jayne McCormack
Grade-6 Project Number- 127
Title: Does the color of lights affect how long afterimage lasts?
--Why can we still see colors or light after we stop looking at them? This effect is called afterimage. My project focuses on how different colored lights affect how long the afterimage lasts. I chose this as my topic because I wanted to know why my eyes reacted the way they do to bright lights. Do different colors affect how long afterimage lasts? My project focuses on what color of light has the longest lasting afterimage. I predicted in my hypothesis that yellow would last the longest, then orange, red, purple, blue, and finally green. Then I made and programed goggles and tested people by flashing different colored lights in their eyes. My results were almost opposite of my hypothesis with purple in the lead, then blue, orange, green, yellow, and lastly red. In the end I came to the conclusion that different colored lights did affect after image and purple is the strongest.

Pujeeth Meruva
Grade-11 Project Number- 359
Title: Implementing a Binary Network Level Simulating System to Optimize Cellular Voice Calls
--With the advent of smartphones and new mobile technology, a clear decline in the quality of voice calls has evidently taken place. Although it is hard to fathom how, in a world riddled with new technological developments, mobile communication can be inferior to its landline predecessors, much of the blame does in fact fall upon wireless carriers and new smartphones. Today’s mobile phones are modeled after standard wire-line phones, and thus also digitize each audio frequency from 300 to 3400 hertz. And in this model is where the problem lies, as, unlike landlines, wireless mobile phones do not provide each caller with a dedicated full-capacity channel and instead they share a limited amount of wireless spectrum. This lack of channels forces voice data to be compressed to let the vast number of users connect. As a result, voice data quality drops exponentially. In fact, standard compression rates for voice calls range from 12.2 kb/s to 4.75 kb/s, depending on the strength of the wireless signal and the volume of voice traffic. Compression speeds as low as 7.85 kb/s are still comparable to landlines, however, below that, compression speeds are so slow that voice data arrives with incredible distortions such as warbling and ringing and missing syllables. This distortion becomes even worse while attempting cross-continental or cross-carrier telephone calls, with the local network directing the call into the backbone telephone network immediately. This backbone was designed to carry fast landline traffic at more than 5 times the speed of the average telephone call. This results in the transcoding at the exchange point further distorting calls while converting mobile voice data to a higher wire-line rate. The effects increase further when trying to reach another cellular device, rather than a landline phone which can decode the signal without losing more information. Mobile phones on the other hand have to recompress the data to fit it into a compressed, cramped wireless channel. In this project, I aimed to find a method in which traditional mobile network providers can offer adequate quality of voice calls in a manner that both benefits the user, and is cost effective as well as logistically viable. In making a binary communication system, the first major step that was required was data encoding. Data encoding is a large component of sending voice data across current communication lines for the purpose of standardization, speed, and compression. In this project, I used a combination of methods, including Huffman encoding, Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) encoding, Linear Block encoding, Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) encoding, and Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) encoding. Upon receiving the voice data, the system engages in syndrome decoding to provide the end user with voice data in a usable fashion. Using these various encoding methods as well as syndrome decoding made voice quality increasingly better and transmitting data at faster rates. The next step in truly efficient audio signal transmission is modulation and filtering of data. Modulating the data makes voice data usable for transportation. The data is then demodulated, by rectifying the signals and then filtered in order to extract the part of the signal that is required to understand the signal. Modulating and filtering in this project was optimized, through multiple trials, in order to make voice data quality much clearer. In order to test the innovative methods used in this project, a network level simulator was used, known as WSim, with a variety of parameters used as testing methods, including, packet size, number of nodes, and skew. The most important difference in this area was the use of 4 different types of MAC protocols: TDMA, Stabilized ALOHA, CSMA, and FDMA. Current LTE 4G Technology uses TDMA over FDMA, because TDMA is far cheaper, However, FDMA is much quicker and saves voice quality, whereas TDMA creates backlog of voice data.
Fort Wayne

Akshaj Mishra
Grade-10 Project Number- 333
Title: Biobased synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid using green chemistry: benefits beyond the expected
--Aspirin is the most popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (35,000 MT/y). While simple, its manufacturing process uses harsh chemicals that are made through energy intense routes. By following principles of green chemistry, a novel method to synthesize acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), the active ingredient of Aspirin, was developed, tested (NMR and FTIR), and confirmed to be comparable in yields and purity with the current synthetic process. This involved replacing strong acids such as sulfuric and phosphoric acid typically used as catalysts with natural ingredients like lemon and tamarind juice. The next part of the project involved comparing the benefits of the greener ASA with synthetic ASA on organisms. Germination and growth rates of mung (Vigna radiata) seeds and the reproduction efficiency of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) under exposure to different types of ASA were measured. The natural ingredient based ASA solution resulted in about a 25% higher growth (radicle length) of mung and about 10% improved reproduction in fruit flies compared to the synthetic ASA solution. These results could have profound impacts on farming and early stage immunity development. Furthermore, a novel process was invented to replace one of the key ingredients--acetic anhydride, which is a known controlled precursor on the DEA list II for its potential illegal usage to make certain opioids-- with bio-sourced reactants using enzymes (esterase) as catalysts. Besides reducing the greenhouse gas emissions associated with more than 16000 MT/y of acetic anhydride production for aspirin, this provides a novel path to a fully bio-based ASA.

Andrew Molargik
Grade-7 Project Number- 168
Title: Rainbow Radiation
-- The purpose of this experiment is to determine which color of paper will absorb the most heat from a heating lamp when wrapped around a jar of water. My hypothesis is that the jar with black paper will absorb the most heat, while the white jar will absorb the least. To test this, I wrapped different colors of construction paper (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, white, and black) around a glass jar full of water. Then, I placed the jar in a cardboard box, and subjected it to an incandescent heating lamp for 35 minutes. The results show that the white paper absorbed the least heat, and the black paper took in the most. Between those were the colors of the rainbow, which each gained more heat than the previous one by a slight amount, in the order of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet (rainbow sequence). In conclusion, my hypothesis was correct, and one way I would change this experiment would be to dye the water in the jars instead of wrapping paper around them, and see which color of dyed water absorbs the most heat on its own.

Lilly Moser
Grade-4 Project Number- 110
Title: Rapid Recall
--I was interested to see if there was a difference between girls and boys with their short-term memory. I thought girls would have better short term memory. I tested people' s short term memory by reading off number sequences of different sizes ranging from 2 digits all the way up to 11 digits and had them repeat the numbers back to me. I started with 2 digits and if they got that right I would go up to three digits and so on. I marked off how each person did. I tested 46 people of all ages. I then averaged the the scores in 3 different categories: Overall Males/Females, boys 0-17/girls 0-17, and boys 18 and up/girls 18 and up. My hypothesis was incorrect overall. Boys beat the girls by .1 overall. In the 0-17 age range boys beat girls by .5. In the 18 and older category girls beat boys by .5. I think my hypothesis could have been proven correct if i changed my test to be a memory test dealing with a verbal list. My research showed that girls were at multi-taking and verbal short term memory. Boys are better at visual-spatial memory which includes numbers. I believe this might have been why they won overall.

Andrew Mrozinske
Grade-7 Project Number- 162
Title: Cruisin' On Air
--The purpose of our project was to create an efficient motorized vehicular device to move on multiple surfaces. We asked what is necessary to create a motorized vehicular device (hovercraft) that can travel on a cushion of air over different surfaces? Our hypothesis was that our experiment will prove that when airflow is created and managed properly, this vehicle can be lifted and moved across different surfaces. To test the ease of movement, we measured the amount of time it took the hovercraft to move seven meters on different surfaces. This measurement revealed that concrete caused the least amount of friction. We discovered that the design of the hovercraft must balance power and weight to be allowed to move initially. We also discovered that the friction of a surface will impact at what rate it will move.
La Porte

Arko Mukhopadhyay
Grade-7 Project Number- 160
Title: Biodiesel efficiency
--Biodiesel is a great renewable energy source. It is made from the fats of plants or animals. It combines high performance with environmental benefits. It has been reported that biodiesel combustion can result in less air pollutant emissions, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, hydrocarbons, except for slightly higher nitrogen oxides. The main feedstocks for biodiesel fuel are: Virgin oil, Waste vegetable oil (WVO), Animal fats, Algae, Oil from halophytes. Alkali or acid transesterification reaction is used for making biodiesel. Though alkali transesterification is a faster and efficient process but free fatty acids (FFA) is undesirable during reaction due to the formation of soap, yield loss, and increased difficulty in product separation. I chose three different feedstocks, soybean oil, corn oil, and canola oil, with varying amounts of FFA and triglycerides. Then I ran them each through the alkali-catalyzed transesterification reaction to turn the feedstock into biodiesel. After the reaction I tested for the amount of fallout, which is the lipids that were left unreacted in the transesterification reaction that did not dissolve in methanol. Next I did an efficiency test by making my own design of a lantern to burn biodiesel and check the rise in temperature of water. After I got my results I could conclude that the soybean oil transesterification reaction was the most efficient since it had the highest increase in temperature and least fallout. The experiment also showed that higher the content of FFA the worse the transesterification reaction.

Shawn Nazarloo
Title: Real Time Facial Recognition Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
--Facial recognition as a biometric for security identification is becoming an increasingly utilized tool in the real world. In this research project, we asked if creating a unique identifier using principal component analysis (PCA) for facial recognition could be a method to accurately identify faces. A computer programing language called Python was used to generate the unique numerical identifier for facial images. Utilizing this code a series of data were generated for features on the facial image. PCA was used to integrate the data to generate the unique numerical identifier for each facial image. The Python program allowed us to generate a dataset of facial images that were stored in a Trained memory. We then also looked at the accuracy of image retrieval from a Trained data set. The validity of the method used to generate a unique number array for each face image was confirmed. The accuracy of retrieval varied from 50% to 97% accuracy. The programming at this stage of development was not sophisticated enough to allow for variations in image quality, lighting conditions or changes in facial features over time. Some of these conditions may have contributed to the low accuracy retrieval for one of the facial images scanned. In conclusion, we were able to successfully program and utilize PCA to generate a unique identifier number array for each subject imaged. In four of the five images, we were able to have an 83% to 97% accuracy in retrieving the right image. This methodology of using PCA for unique identification of facial images could be used in future security applications such as in law enforcement, in school security systems and other real-world applications.

Raeanna Neely
Title: The Effectiveness of Insulation
--In Indiana, we experience both extreme hot and cold temperatures, so how well does the insulation in our homes stop the transfer of heat? This project tests 4 construction grade insulations and 4 insulating materials found in the average home, to see which would perform the best at stopping heat transfer. All the insulations were tested using a handmade wooden test box placed in both a simulated summer climate (using a wood stove) and a simulated winter climate (using a chest freezer). My hypothesis stated the R-38 construction grade insulation would perform the best in both climates. The project data supported my hypothesis by showing the R-38 insulation was the most effective in both simulated climates. From the found-at-home materials, the test results showed styrofoam and newspaper were the best insulators.
Fort Wayne

Abigail Neibert
Title: Wash Your Hands

Briana Nelson
Title: Soil Slake and Infiltration Run-Off
--For our project, we wanted to find out which method of preparing soil was best for crops and the soil itself. Throughout this project, we have seen infiltration in both methods, but one has shown infiltration more than others. Non- tilled soil has a higher infiltration rate and produces less runoff water than tilled soil. By showing how these two preparation methods absorb and hold water, we hope to persuade farmers to move away from tilling. We wanted to improve farming by testing the two methods and observing which one was the best for planting crops thus allowing farmers to have healthier crops. Since the tilled soil has been broken up and lifted, the glues and bonds have broken. This makes it very difficult for the soil to stay together. The water stands and doesn't absorb.The water that passes through the tilled soil had large dirt clumps and the color of the water was a dark brown. When the water was poured onto the tilled soil, the runoff tray had significantly more water than the infiltration tray. The non-tilled soil has little to know dirt fall through. The little water that went into runoff tray was clear.

Abraham Oliver
Grade-12 Project Number- 374
Title: Can Deep Reinforcement Learning Solve Misère Combinatorial Games?
--In 2017, Silver et al. designed a reinforcement learning algorithm that learned tabula rasa without any human-generated data. They applied this algorithm to the games of Go, Chess, and Shogi with positive results suggesting that the algorithm is general enough to learn many other games as well. Here, we investigate how well this technique performs on the misère version of a combinatorial game, misère tic-tac-toe, in which the goal is not to complete a row, column, or diagonal. We found that a successful Deep-Q neural network could be trained solely from self-play for the case of a three-by-three board. However, with board sizes of four-by-four and larger, the models failed to converge to a winning strategy. Although the computational power of the original tests could not be matched and the hyperparameters could not be as finely tuned, this result suggests that misère games may be fundamentally different than their regular counterparts, possibly requiring different algorithms and approaches.

Ariana Opuszenski
Grade-11 Project Number- 338
Title: Gears, Pulleys, and Wind Turbines
--This project was chosen because the researcher has previous knowledge about this subject and wanted to improve on their understanding of it. The problem is that engineers are trying to make wind turbines more efficient because gears are inefficient in wind turbines. The engineering goal was to build working systems that can be tested and have a more efficient pulley system. There is a wood frame with a gear system on one side and a pulley system on the other side. The systems were powered by s leaf blower, blowing on a steel fan. Different measuring tools were used to measure the volts, speed and torque of the systems, along with measuring the systems to find the mechanical advantage. There were five trials for testing volts and speed. The pulley system prevailed against the gear system. There was many steps that needed to be completed to make the systems to work. The researcher gained some knowledge at how small things can make a difference. Even down to the fan type or the weight of the materials needed for the systems made a huge difference in the way that the system would work. When an issue arose the issue had to be looked at from different angles to solve it.
Terre Haute

Cade Orchard
Grade-12 Project Number- 383
Title: Determining Genetic Requirements for Translocon-Associated Protein Degradation
--High concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are associated with cardiovascular disease and other cholesterol-related pathologies. Statins are used to treat afflicted patients by lowering LDL levels but have been shown to be incompletely effective. Because of this, there is a demonstrated need for new methods to lower bad cholesterol levels. LDLs are synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane in hepatocytes (liver cells). During synthesis, the protein component of an LDL particle enters a translocon, a pore within the ER membrane, and stalls until lipids inside the ER bind to the protein. Under certain circumstances, an enzyme called Hrd1 targets for destruction proteins that have stalled in the ER translocon, such as the protein component of LDL particles. How Hrd1 recognizes these proteins is unknown. A genome-wide screen conducted by a former laboratory member revealed several candidate genes with potential roles in degrading translocon-associated proteins in the model organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast). I hypothesized that a specific group of these genes functions with Hrd1 in a protein degradation pathway. Using small-scale growth assays that indirectly report on abundance of a Hrd1 substrate, I identified genes that are integral to this process. My results newly suggest that a gene encoding the protein chaperone, Ydj1, and a gene encoding an exomannosidase of the ER, Mnl1, is required. Because protein degradation processes are highly similar in yeast and humans, genes found to be involved in this pathway may represent potential therapeutic targets for elevated cholesterol and could lead to more effective treatments.

Annie Ostojic
Grade-10 Project Number- 336
Title: A Third Eye: A Technological Safety Device that Enlarges the Visual Field of Petextrians for Safer Walking while Texting
--Ambulatory cell phone injuries in the U.S. are an emerging national concern with 525,000 pedestrian-vehicle traffic injuries and over 4,300 pedestrian-vehicle deaths occurring annually according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Whether on a university campus or in a city, pedestrian texters, called petextrians, step into traffic, fall down stairs, and bump into signs or walls. These distracted petextrians limit their visual fields by walking with their heads down while using smartphones. Although some cities have imposed fines for texting while walking, the practice of walking and texting continues to grow. Research has established that petextrians exhibit distinct gait changes and pathway deviations as they text and walk; however, previous research and available products on the market have not addressed the problem with a solution that enlarges petextrians’ visual fields for improved safety. Mimicking nature’s lens structures that improve visual fields for organisms such as fish, this engineering research designed, created, and evaluated through several iterations a new smartphone device that effectively broadens petextrians’ visual fields for safer smartphone use. The study analyzed visual field measurements, trigonometric lateral deviation calculations, and eye tracking transition matrices calculations to validate the device’s efficacy and utilization during testing. The prototype enlarged the angle of view (AOV) and working distance (WD) of the visual field with decreased petextrian lateral deviation from a linear path. This research product provides a pragmatic solution to a safety problem by creating a visual sensory phone adaptation that broadens the visual field and decreases potential petextrians’ injuries.

Kirtan Patel
Grade-6 Project Number- 137
Title: Five Second Rule
--My science fair project was on pathogen or known as germs, and I thought about doing these experiments because I wanted to see if it was safe to eat food that was on the ground for five seconds. This is known as the five second rule. This science fair project taught me a lot about germs, here is what I had to do for the experiment. I took petri dishes and put a sample of the food in the petri dishes that touched the ground and that did touch the ground. I let them grow for five days. I would record the data and check the temperature everyday with a infrared thermometer. For the germs to grow the best I put a small heater in the room. The purpose of my experiment was to see if food that if I dropped a piece of food on the ground for five seconds then is safe to eat. My hypothesis was that cheese would have the most germs because cheese is made from milk and is moist. My hypothesis was proven correct because jello was the food that had the most germs.
west lafayette

Carlondrea Petty
Grade-11 Project Number- 345
Title: The Effect of Media Compositions on Cardiomyocyte and Cardiac Fibroblasts Behavior and Growth
--Cardiomyocytes (CMs) are one of the most promising therapeutic approaches for treatment after a myocardial infarction. Nonetheless, in culture, Cardiac Fibroblasts (CFs) tend to overgrow CMs which decreases the amount of CMs available for study. The purpose of this experiment is to prevent the expansion of CFs using a serum free media and find a way for CMs to be cultured in media for a longer period of time. The CFs were harvested from neonatal rat hearts, while the CMs are derived from stem cells. Molecules were added to the stem cells to imitate the behavior of CMs because they can reproduce while CMs cannot. The CMs and CFs were fed different media compositions: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% FBS in DMEM and RPMI B27 (serum-free supplemented media) to see the effect on their behavior and growth. The cells were analyzed by cell growth, protein expression, and CF growth ratio. The cell growth and protein expression data was detected by immunostaining. The protein expressions for CFs expressed Vimentin and SMA, while CMs expressed Troponin-T and Connexin-43 under DMEM and RPMI B27 and it showed different conditions do not affect the behavior of the cells. Also, the growth experiment for CFs showed that FBS has an effect on the growth of CFs and that CFs can be decreased. Through this research, CMs will last longer in a lab setting and serum free supplemented media will prevent CF expansion. This project is the base work for curing heart disease.
South Bend

Aspen Pflughoeft
Grade-12 Project Number- 380
Title: Do The Eyes Have It?
--The information gathered here seeks to answer questions regarding the connection between emotion recognition and eye color as well as to answer the question of if this connection is stronger between people of the same gender or the same eye color. The researcher proposed the hypothesis that people recognize basic emotions more accurately in lighter colored eyes, specifically blue eyes; additionally people of each gender or eye color identify emotions more accurately when they share a gender or eye color with the person expressing the emotion. Designed as an interview, participants were shown a slideshow composed of pictures of solely eyes in every combination of eye color, emotion, and gender. While looking at each picture, participants answered what emotion they believed the slide portrayed. In this way, the study measured the accuracy of participants against a control group of pictures whose emotion was decided based on the whole face, not just the eyes. Upon completing the interviews, the data analysis showed that both genders score similarly as did all three eye colors, but the analysis of specific gender and eye color based groups showed more variance. After much analysis, the hypothesis was proven false. Brown eyes, not blue eyes, recognize emotions more accurately while no breakdown group of eye color, gender, or gender and eye color best recognized emotions displayed by their like counterparts.

Megan Pierce
Grade-9 Project Number- 311
Title: Flaming Fruits
--In this experiment, oranges, grapefruit, limes, and lemons were collected and their peels removed and distilled. This was to extract the oil from the fruit peels. After that, the oil was collected and measured. Then, each oil was combined with isopropyl alcohol and set on fire inside separate pie pans while being timed with a stopwatch. All steps and measurements were as consistent as possible for each fruit type for two trials. This experiment was done in a controlled and supervised laboratory. The data collected showed that lime had the greatest average of 55.53 sec. Following lime was grapefruit with 53.16 sec average. Then orange with an average of 49.26 sec. Lemon was the oil with the smallest average of 44.155 sec. The rubbing alcohol by itself had an average of 40.635 sec., with the smallest amount of time.
Crown Point

Skyler Plummer
Grade-9 Project Number- 318
Title: Money Talks: Distance Different Golf Ball Brands Travel
--Have you ever been golfing and can't ever make the green on a drive? You might be using bad golf balls. So I was wondering, do more expensive golf balls go further? So I built a pendulum to make contact with the ball the same about every time. I got four different kinds of golf balls to hit and test the distance. The most expensive balls did not go the farthest, but it did go the second farthest. Therefor the more expensive golf balls don’t always go the farthest.

Olivia Pollom
Title: Aquaponics vs Hydroponics
--The yield for aquaponics was 32lb of lettuce and for hydroponics it was 28lb of lettuce. Hydroponics, in a professional farm, is more expensive, and less productive. Water in the hydroponic system has to be changed every two weeks causing more money to be spent. In contrast, in aquaponics, you can keep the water which results in a lower cost. Hydroponics can be as much as $80 every two weeks more than aquaponics.
Terre Haute

Wesley Potts
Title: Effect of Capsaicin on the growth of E. coli
--The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of Capsaicin on the growth of E. coli bacteria. It was hypothesized that the capsaicin would have some sort of growth inhibiting effect or would kill the E. coli bacteria. Capsaicin was extracted by turning habanero peppers to a pulp and then adding 15 mL of Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to the pulp. Capsaicin, .02 mL, was then added to 10 mL of nutrient broth to create 10 tubes per group. The control consisted of only DMSO. E. coli was then used to inoculate each culture and then the cultures were incubated and allowed to grow for 48 hrs. Each E. coli broth culture was serial diluted and then plated on nutrient agar. After 24 hours, plates were assessed for growth. Growth was measured by taking pictures of each plate with a red background. The digital images were analyzed by counting the number of pixel squares in one square section of the petri dish to find the percentage of the petri dish covered in bacteria. Overall the capsaicin seemed to have an inhibiting effect on the growth of the bacteria. The data supports this as the control groups had averages of 12.13% and 8.53% being clear of bacteria growth, while the groups with capsaicin had averages of 48.46% and 48.16% clear of bacteria growth. As shown by the data, the groups with capsaicin had a much larger percentage of the petri dish covered overall. Both capsaicin groups had very similar results with the average percent of the petri dish clear. Capsaicin may have some use as a bacterial inhibitor, but future study will be needed.

Jakob Prairie
Grade-6 Project Number- 122
Title: Appearantly Ripening
--The purpose of this project was to explore plant hormones and how they interact with each other. The researcher wondered if ethylene released by ripening fruit would cause unripen fruit to mature faster. The hypothesis stated that ethylene from ripe bananas would ripen immature pears more than pears ripening on their own. Ethylene is a known chemical that was found to ripen fruit by researchers and techniques were found as far back as ancient Egypt to unknowingly use this chemical to ripen fruit. The researcher used a control group of pears sealed alone in individual bags along with a test group of pears along with a banana in sealed bags. A staining process was used to test for starch in the pears with more ripened pears appear lighter. Results revealed that the unripe pears with ripe bananas ripened faster than the unripe pears that were sealed by themselves. Control subjects averaged 5 on starch testing scale while test subjects averaged 6 with larger numbers indicating more ripeness. Limits included late season testing with store bought fruit, not using a second group from an orchard, and using a small sample size. It was found that the hypothesis could be supported by the results of this study.

Benjamin Puch
Grade-8 Project Number- 171
Title: Ready for Lift-Off: Does Nose Cone Shape Affect the Altitude Performance of a Rocket?
-- The purpose of this experiment was to figure out if nose cone shape affects the altitude performance of a rocket. My hypothesis was if the shape of the nose cone is changed, then the altitude performance of a rocket will also change. The procedure had six main parts. First, materials were obtained. Second, nose cones were constructed in the shapes of a cone, parabola, hemisphere, sailfish head, and tuna fish head. Third, the rocket was built. Fourth, the launch pad was constructed. Fifth, the rocket was launched 3-4 times with each nose cone. Finally, the average altitude reached and standard deviation for each nose cone shape were calculated. In conclusion, the nose cone shaped like a cone had the highest average altitude and the lowest standard deviation, being the best performer and the most consistent. The cone’s average altitude was 45.72 meters and its standard deviation was 0.25 meters. The average altitudes for all of the nose cone shapes ranged from 41.15 meters to 45.72 meters. The standard deviation for all of the shapes ranged from 0.25 meters to 5.83 meters. My hypothesis that changing the shape of the nose cone would result in changes in altitude performance was correct.
Saint John

Albert Rajwa
Grade-6 Project Number- 135
Title: How Does Temperature Affect Magnetism
--Magnetism is one of the most important physical phenomena observed in nature. The subject of this research project is to explore the influence of temperature on magnetic strength. In order to test the hypothesis stating that if a temperature is changed the power of a magnet is affected, three identical ceramic magnets were exposed to varying temperatures ranging from 0 degrees F to 160 degrees F and then carefully checked for their strength. This project is of high importance because many products utilize magnets, for instance, loudspeakers, electric motors, and computer hard drives. Magnetism was discovered in ancient Greece. It was studied by many famous physicists such as James Clerk Maxwell, Pierre Curie, and Michael Faraday. The collected data and the results of the data analysis showed that the strength of the magnets was indeed significantly affected by temperature. It has also been demonstrated that an increase in temperature decreases magnetic strength and that a decrease in temperature increases magnetic strength.
West Lafayette

Adhitya Ramkumar
Grade-11 Project Number- 362
Title: Dopamine interaction with membrane surfaces
--Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a central role in the brain's reward system. It is transported by and released by membrane vesicles in neuronal cells. In this process, dopamine interacts with lipid molecules that are the scaffold of cellular membranes. Current knowledge on the direct interaction of dopamine with lipids and membrane surfaces as a whole is limited due to lack of appropriate experimental methods. Relatively recently, a biophysical method using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been developed and applied to measurements of dopamine interaction with neutral and charged lipid vesicles. Although NMR measurements provide information on dopamine affinity to various membrane surfaces, computer simulations are needed in order to fully interpret experimental data. In this project, I am using Molecular Dynamics simulations to determine the interaction and dynamic of dopamine molecules in the vicinity of lipid bilayers. This approach shows with atomic resolution how dopamine is oriented in the vicinity of lipid headgroups and allows a calculation of dopamine residence time within membranes. This study can help develop new experimental methods for neurotransmitter studies and can possible guide studies at cellular level.

Makaila Ranges
Grade-12 Project Number- 364
Title: Determining the Contrast-Enhanced Detection Limit for Breast Microcalcifications
--The purpose of this research is to find the enhanced detection limit of microcalcifications using gold nanoparticles in a large-scale breast model. Microcalcifications (microcals) are an early symptom of breast cancer in patients; therefore, early detection of microcalcifications, can be an early detection of cancer. Gold nanoparticles are being used to increase the x-ray contrast of the microcals, which may allow for the detection of small microcals in dense breast tissue. The dense breast tissue model will be mimicked by albumin agarose hydrogels, which has the consistency and attenuation of dense breast tissue. The microcals will be 5, 10, 50, 100, 150, and 200 microliters, and will be made of hydroxyapatite, which will be placed in the dense tissue. The matrigel holds together the hydroxyapatite. The control group of microcals will not have targeted gold-nanoparticles and will be imaged using a mammographer to see the detection limit of microcalcifications. The experimental group will have targeted gold-nanoparticles and will be x-rayed in order to see the increased contrast gold-nanoparticles can cause. Then imaging software will be used to determine the attenuation that arises to determine the limit of microcals.
South Bend

Atticus Refner
Grade-9 Project Number- 320
Title: Composting Food and its Effects on the Chemistry of the Soil
-- I wanted to find out the effects of composting breads, fruits, and vegetables, and how it would change the chemistry of soil. This is important because we waste a great deal of food and should try to not be as wasteful as we are. I choose breads, fruits, and vegetables because they are major food groups and we use a lot of them. I did not use meats and dairy because they spoil and rot too quickly. In my previous experiments I have learned that worms are vital for plant health so I used thirty red wigglers in each bin. I also learned that composting affects the quality of soil. We all throw away more food than we should, and composting is a great way to reuse the leftover foods. Therefore, composting is an inexpensive and important way to help us all be less wasteful and more mindful of how we can all help save the planet. My science fair experiment is important to anyone that has their own garden and would like to increase soil quality while helping save the Earth. We should all try to be as self-sufficient as we can and composting is one way to do so. We should all compost as much as we can to reduce waste, keep soil healthy, and do our part to try and preserve our world from the harmful chemicals and pollutants that are forced upon it.

Caitleen Reyes
Grade-8 Project Number- 195
Title: Greenery + Soil or Fish?
-- The scarcity of occupiable land and the environmental issues of traditional farming has brought concerns to people all over the world. For that reason, the researcher was inspired to do this experiment. The project deals with the comparison between the traditional and aquaponics farming systems. The importance of knowing the better system of the two is so that people can find a way to maximize the benefits of farming and be environmentally conscious. The scientific problem analyzes which farming system, traditional or aquaponics, will produce a higher growth when using basil? The researcher created both the traditional and aquaponics systems. Then, allowed the fish of the aquaponics system to fertilize the water for a week. Next, planted seven basil seeds into each of both the system’s ten holes. Afterwards, the researcher allowed the seedlings to grow for eighteen days noting each seedling’s height every day. In addition, the researcher collected detailed data every other day. On the last day of testing, the researcher included data on the number of leaves the seedlings held. In the end, the average growth of each day for the aquaponics system was usually higher than the traditional system when being compared. As a result, the hypothesis was accepted and proven to be correct. In conclusion, aquaponics can give anyone access to the jubilance of farming while maintaining a robust environment.

Katianna Richardson
Grade-9 Project Number- 314
Title: The Impact of Biodegradable Plastic on Soil Quality
--Plastic film is used extensively in agriculture. Biodegradable plastic film has been available since 1990, however, very little is known about the environmental impact of the biodegradation of this material. Testing under a variety of climate conditions is needed to determine their safety and impact on soil quality. Chitin is sometimes used as a fertilizer to increase the calcium and magnesium content of soil. In this study, biodegradable plastics were made from chitosan, polylactic acid, and starch. The plastics were degraded in soil over a period of 4 months using a variety of soil moisture levels. Their impact on pH, calcium, magnesium, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphorus levels were measured.

Andrew Riehle
Title: Do home materials affect the speed of sound
--Styrofoam, egg cartons, and cloth were tested to determine if the speed of sound was slowed down by these materials.The study of noise and the negative effects on humans in the daily lives has been studied for a over 50 years. Scientists are always looking for new and more effective ways to muffle and eliminate any noise that someone would deem a nuisance. The hypothesis for this project is that the Styrofoam peanuts will affect the speed of sound the most. To study what materials can slow down the speed of sound, the project was built using a 10 foot pipe as a sound chamber. Equipment was purchased for recording data, a microphone to collect the data, and a computer program designed to record all of the data from the microphone.The results from the experiment show that the Styrofoam peanuts slowed down the speed of sound the most than the other materials , further evaluations could be made regarding studying different thicknesses of each material to see how the test results would vary. There could also study if a combination of materials would change the outcome, and if the order of materials is relevant to the final outcome. This experiment could affect the environment by to take the plastic from the garbage patch in the ocean and change the plastic into Styrofoam since Styrofoam and plastic are made of the same material and fill the walls with the Styrofoam peanuts since there is a growing population they will need need ideas for building materials.

Estella Ringger
Grade-9 Project Number- 304
Title: Teens and Technology: The Negative Effects of Technology in Generation Z
--The purpose of this action research is to inform readers about the effects of technology on Generation Z. Through the group's literature review, it was discovered that most research stated technology affected teens in negative ways. The research said that technology could affect mental and physical health, sleep, and relationships. This led to the hypothesis that technology had a negative effect on Generation Z. The group then did further research by surveying their classmates and trying an experiment on themselves. A survey was sent out to all of the freshmen at Adams Central. The survey asked questions about technology usage and its effects. A technology usage chart was also completed by the researchers for a self-experiment. The chart used ratings to determine how long the group members had spent on that particular technology in that day and how they felt physically, mentally, and socially. The results of both the survey and self-experiment did not support the hypothesis made based on the research from the literature review. However, the group noticed a design flaw in their survey and experiment so they created a new survey with more specific questions and a new self-experiment with more detailed emotion options. The initial results from the second survey supported the original hypothesis and information in the literature review. Further research is needed to better determine the results of technology on Generation Z. The authors have created a second technology chart for this future research.

Saige Rinkenberger
Grade-9 Project Number- 304
Title: Teens and Technology: The Negative Effects of Technology on Generation Z
--The purpose of this action research is to inform readers about the effects of technology on Generation Z. Through the group's literature review, it was discovered that most research stated technology affected teens in negative ways. The research said that technology could affect mental and physical health, sleep, and relationships. This led to the hypothesis that technology had a negative effect on Generation Z. The group then did further research by surveying their classmates and trying an experiment on themselves. A survey was sent out to all of the freshmen at Adams Central. The survey asked questions about technology usage and its effects. A technology usage chart was also completed by the researchers for a self-experiment. The chart used ratings to determine how long the group members had spent on that particular technology in that day and how they felt physically, mentally, and socially. The results of both the survey and self-experiment did not support the hypothesis made based on the research from the literature review. However, the group noticed a design flaw in their survey and experiment so they created a new survey with more specific questions and a new self-experiment with more detailed emotion options. The initial results from the second survey supported the original hypothesis and information in the literature review. Further research is needed to better determine the results of technology on Generation Z. The authors have created a second technology chart for this future research.

Philip Ritchie
Grade-7 Project Number- 151
Title: Build, Break, Repeat
--Efficiency in bridge building is valuable for environmental and economic reasons. I decided to learn more about efficiency by building popsicle stick bridges based on two different Truss designs to find which design is the most efficient. I built two Warren and two Howe Truss bridges. After construction, I weighed each bridge in ounces. I built a testing mechanism and set it on top of the bridge. A five-gallon bucket attached with carabiners hung below. I added sand until the bridge broke and then weighed the bucket and recorded results in pounds. To find efficiency, I divided the weight that the bridge held by the weight of the bridge. In my first test, the Warren trusses had the best efficiency at an average of 312. The Howe trusses scored 254. The Howe trusses held more weight than the Warren trusses on average, but weighed over 30% more, so the Warren trusses were more efficient. After I completed my research and testing, I found that the side truss design was beneficial, but having strong lateral bracing was of equal or greater importance. I did more background research and found that experts agreed with this finding. I built two more Warren truss bridges and added angled lateral bracing. When tested, these bridges were significantly more efficient with an average score of 461.5. This project could grow with additional research and testing on the importance of lateral bracing in bridges and other structures.

Chloee Robison
Grade-10 Project Number- 375
Title: Mind over Matter: The Effect of Auditory Stimulus on Pain Tolerance
--It has been previously tested that the introduction of multiple stimuli to the senses while an individual undergoes pain can significantly decrease the experience of pain. To determine the effectiveness of auditory distraction while the brain is under stress, this experiment monitors the brain activity of individuals while they are subjected to pain. By utilizing an electroencephalogram (EEG), a machine that tracks the electronegative pulses of the brain and displays them on a screen, the alpha brain waves of each participant were recorded to determine the amount of pain each experienced when one hand was placed in ice water. Each individual was exposed to this pain while also listening to different speeds of music. The presence of alpha waves while each subject placed a single hand in ice water and listened to music was greater than when the subjects experienced the same stimulus without a distraction. The pain threshold for each subject was nearly doubled when exposed to a distracting audio stimulus, meaning that audio distraction (including audiobooks and music) is a highly effective treatment for patients with chronic pain and those recovering from major surgeries.

Gracie Rose
Title: Colored vs. Numerical Sorting Systems
--What can be sorted faster, colors or numbers? That is what I wanted to figure out. I believed that people would sort the colors faster than the numbers because they would be able to recognize the colors faster. To test this, I got 20 people, ten men, and ten women. I decided to use ping pong balls to have people sort. I also decided to time how long it takes each person to sort and to count the number of errors they made afterward to get the best understanding of which type was sorted most effectively and productively. They were asked to sort a bucket of ping pong balls labeled with colors and then asked to do the same thing again except with numbers. I recorded the results for both. I compared the data average for everyone, for just men, and for just women to figure out who can really sort what the fastest. What the results turned out to be are that on average, people sort colors faster. Going a little deeper into it, the men still sorted colors faster, but it was only by a one second difference. Women, on the other hand, sorted colors a lot faster than numbers with a 30-second difference. Even though only the women did significantly better with colors, this system should be used more since it helps around half the population and it doesnt hurt the other half. Overall my hypothesis was correct since people on average sort the colors faster, even though it was mainly only for the women.
Fort Wayne

Aaron Russell
Grade-12 Project Number- 376
Title: Using resonance to identify internal injuries
--With instant information on the rise it is more and more technologically possible to receive important medical information in an instant. In my experiment I will utilize the natural tenancy objects possess, to resonate. I will create a device that will vibrate peoples various body parts and identify a smaller variety of injuries and move up as i get the hang of using the device. After doing lot of research I have yet to find someone doing what I am hoping to do with this experiment, many people have considered using sound vibrations to stop riots but never using vibrations on the body. You can always go to the doctor and spend hundreds of dollars for him to tell you your arm is broken. Withy idea this will decrease that expense and bring first aid to your fingertips. I will of course eventually be developing an app but first I will be using ballistics gel to create scenarios that the app could be utilized for. If this experiment proves to be a success it could be refined to bring many advanced diagnoses to your pocket and could even be further studied in the medical field as an alternative to other scans.

Kreesha Saha
Grade-8 Project Number- 177
Title: Using Cactus Mucilage to Remove Nitrate from Drinking Water
--The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard for maximum nitrate levels in drinking water is 10 ppm. However, in many areas of India, along with parts of China, South Africa, and Australia, the levels of nitrate in groundwater exceed 50 ppm. Excessive amounts of nitrate may cause methemoglobinemia, also known as blue baby syndrome, a potentially fatal disease caused by increased levels of methemoglobin in the blood. Nopal cactus mucilage was used as a filter to remove nitrate from sodium nitrate solutions. The control experiment was performed using distilled water. An aquarium nitrate test kit was used to measure the levels of nitrate in the solutions, before and after filtration. The results showed that after filtration, levels of nitrate in the distilled water, 17 ppm, and 34 ppm solutions increased by an average of 50.41, 57.44, and 6.10 ppm, respectively. The nitrate in the 51 ppm solution decreased by 0.59 ppm. This occurred because the cactus had already absorbed nitrate from the soil as it was growing. As a result, the mucilage released nitrate during the filtering process. In addition, the concentration of nitrate in the solution being filtered has to be at a certain minimum in order for the cactus to trap it. Although this experiment was inconclusive, it does support the claim that cactus mucilage can trap nitrate. Possible follow-ups of this project include finding more accurate methods of nitrate measurement and more effective materials to use as filters.
West Lafayette

Mitchell Sampson
Grade-9 Project Number- 312
Title: 3D Printing Away Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections
--In the U.S., catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are attributed to 49,334 CAUTIs/year, 13,000 deaths/year, and sum expenses of over $340 million/year. The objective of this project was to use mass-producible, custom nylon 3D-printing to create novel catheter designs that could be mass-manufactured and would prevent bacterial biofilm formation, lessening the risk of CAUTIs; furthermore, initial trials of the prototypes were done. Each of those three java-scripted prototypes were uniquely designed: one was a smooth control, another was created with fluid dynamic principles, and the last was a biomimetic design. The prototypes were tested with an Escherichia coli inoculated broth. In the first test, the broth was poured over the prototypes, and, a minute later, petri dishes were cultured. The control design had an average of 14 colony forming units (CFU) per cm2, the fluid dynamic design had an average of 14.5 CFU per cm2, and the biomimetic design had an average of 16 CFU per cm2; according to a t-test statistical analysis, there was no distinguishable variance. In further experiments, culturing was not done until 36 hours after the initial administration; with a prolonged amount of time, the results deviated. The control had an average of 2 CFU per cm2, the fluid dynamic design had an average of 0.3 CFU per cm2, and the biomimetic design had an average of 1 CFU per cm2. Those results show that for medical devices used for prolonged periods of time, such as catheters, 3D-printing has a remarkable outlook.

MacKenzie Schmeltz
Grade-8 Project Number- 179
Title: Is Well Water Contaminated by Septic Systems in Densely Populated Subdivisions?
--The purpose of my project was to evaluate drinking well water for contamination from septic tanks in a populated suburban area. This was done by testing for E. coli in well water obtained from dwellings that had both well water and a septic system. My hypothesis was that there would be fecal coliforms present in the well water samples. 100 mL samples were obtained from homes and businesses that had both well and septic systems. The membrane filtration method was used to collect potential microorganisms for culture. The culture dishes were sealed and placed in an incubator. Samples were observed every 24 hours for 3 days. The data shows that out of the 18 samples, 3 had fecal coliforms present. This proves my hypothesis, however, the data obtained was not statistically significant and needs further evaluation using a larger sample size.

Benjamin Schott
Grade-8 Project Number- 196
Title: Measuring the Amount of Heat Transfer Between Four Different Metal Wires
--This experiment was performed to learn about and compare the amount of heat transfer between four different metals. For this purpose, I used wires made of four different metals (copper, iron, titanium, and aluminum) to transfer heat. Specifically, I will measure how a foam cup of cold water warms up over time via wires linked to a foam cup of very hot water. Based on my background research I learned that heat transfers quicker through metals with a higher thermal conductivity rate. Thus, I hypothesized that heat would transfer the fastest through the wires in the following order: copper, aluminum, iron, and titanium. I also included a control group with no wire to make sure that the wires were actually helping the heat transfer process. After completing my experiment and analyzing the results, I found that my hypothesis was correct. In this experiment it was observed that the cold-water cup warmed up the quickest when heat was transferred using the copper wires. After this came the aluminum wires, iron wires, and the titanium wires. Finally, the temperature of the cold-water cup raised the slowest when there was no wire transferring heat, as expected. These results confirmed that my experimental method was appropriate for studying the process of heat transfer in these four metals.

Phoebe Schultz
Grade-5 Project Number- 116
Title: Roots and Growth: Water vs. Soil
--I wanted to do this project to research the difference of hydroponic and soil based plants to help my family’s crops and greenhouse. I think agriculture is a foundation for our society and I will help to teach others to be more efficient and more economic. I predicted that hydroponics would grow taller and produce more leaves than soil. I was wrong, soil was taller and had more leaves. Even though one of the soil plant leaves turned from dark green to light yellow they still proved my hypothesis wrong. I think that the hydroponic growth food is best used with water plants only because soil will eventually use up it’s nutrients. I think it is interesting to find the difference between hydroponics and soil.

Christopher Schweitzer
Grade-6 Project Number- 121
Title: Can iSleep? Part 2
--My topic is really simply the effects on sleep after reading on a book versus after reading on an iPad, versus the effects on sleep after reading on an iPad with blue light repelling glasses. I am trying to answer two questions. First, are the effects on sleep the same after reading on a paper book versus an iPad, and second, do these special blue light protecting glasses cut out blue light from iPads, therefore helping you go to sleep? This project is a continuation of last year’s project to get more data from more subjects and to add the blue light glasses as a variable. And, to simply learn more about this topic and get more reliable and definitive results as opposed to last year. So why do the glasses? This was something that I was itching to answer, and was suggested by one of my judges to test last year. I also thought that doing just the exact same thing was not enough, so, I did this. My hypothesis for the first question is, that the effects on sleep are not the same between the two methods. I came to this conclusion through research and last year’s project. For my second question, based off of research that I did and on the effectiveness of these glasses, that they will help the reader go to sleep faster versus the iPad. So, how did I do this? To put it simply, after my subjects had a book, a measuring device, and had the time parameters set up, they would start reading at the start reading time. Then, they would stop reading, and they would immediately go straight to bed. The next morning, I would record the results. I found that, first, when reading on an iPad, across all of my subjects, they all fell asleep faster on average after reading on a paper book. This difference ranged from 2 minutes, to over 50 minutes, but it still was a conclusion that agreed with my hypothesis. So, my hypothesis was correct. As for my second question, on average, across every single one of my subjects, they all fell asleep faster after reading on the iPad with the blue light glasses. So, how can this pertain to the real world? Well, if you are studying for a big exam the next day, and it is getting late, just use a book. If not, use a pair of blue light glasses, if you are on a computer or iPad. I learned also that these blue light glasses do work, and that you are better off with a book versus an iPad. My hypothesis was correct.

Nicole Segaran
Grade-10 Project Number- 337
Title: Optimization of the Degradation of Azo Dyes via Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
--Azo dyes are commonly used in the textile industry, and are a major constituent of textile factory waste. However, azo-linkages remain non biodegradable, and are highly toxic, linked the neurosensory damage in aquatic biota and cancer. While previous studies show various yeasts and bacteria are able to cleave azo-dye linkages, several have been found to have negative effects on wildlife, and are difficult or costly to culture. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a possible biosorbent of dyes, and has potential to degrade azo dyes. This study contains three purposes: 1) confirm Saccharomyces Cerevisiae as a possible decolorizing agent of azo dyes 2) experiment with the Active Dry Yeast form of S. Cerevisiae as a degrading agent, in comparison to the wild strain, and 3) observe the mechanisms underlying degradation via S. Cerevisiae. Experimentation confirmed S. Cerevisiae as a possible degrading agent of azo dyes, decolorizing the dyes on average >70%(analyzed using spectrophotometry). Furthermore Active Dry Yeast was proven a more efficient degrading agent than the S. Cerevisiae wild strain, able to decolorize Reactive Red 2 by >65 % within 4 minutes. Finally, the suspected mechanism S. Cerevisiae used to degrade Reactive Red 2 was observed to be both bioaccumulation and biosorption due to the characteristics analyzed during experimentation; however, further studies delving into the cellular enzymatic activity is recommended to confirm that both bioaccumulation and biosorption are present.

Mary Sgroi
Grade-11 Project Number- 347
Title: Non-Thermal, Atmospheric Plasma: A Means of Water Purification
--Exposure to organic environmental contaminants in water supplies can lead to adverse health effects. Non-thermal plasmas have been proposed for waste-water treatment as a means to degrade organic contaminants without the risks that traditional methods of water purification bring, which include introducing harmful byproducts. In this work, a non-thermal, atmospheric-pressure direct current (DC) plasma was used to degrade methylene blue (MB). This acted as a model system for using plasma to destroy organic contaminants in water. The effects of both air and argon plasmas were observed on MB solutions over various short time intervals. At exposure times above 10 minutes, argon plasma was more effective than air plasma. For both plasmas, longer exposure time led to greater chemical conversion, and the solutions did not recover their color after stirring, implying an irreversible reaction involving MB. To investigate the role hydroxyl radicals played, glycerol and 2- propanol were used as scavengers. Addition of glycerol to solutions after argon plasma treatment resulted in minimal MB recovery whereas addition of 2-propanol induced an approximately 13% recovery. The results suggest that OH radicals are partially responsible for MB degradation. However, there are limitations in measuring OH radical concentrations present or reacted in the solution. More research should be conducted to better understand degradation interactions. This model system furthers our understanding of the role of plasma-induced chemistry in water treatment applications. Elucidating the chemistry responsible for contaminant degradation may lead to the development of alternative systems for water purification using non-thermal, atmospheric plasmas.
South Bend

Kyle Sheard
Grade-6 Project Number- 140
Title: Tire Time
--This project will determine if tire pressure affects the lap speed of a go-kart. I will have 2 drivers in 2 different karts to test this. They will each run 3 laps on the same track configuration using different tire pressures. I will average the lap speeds of the two drivers. Results will be documents and placed on a chart to find out if lap speed if affected by tire pressure.

Laura Sheckell
Grade-12 Project Number- 375
Title: Mind Over Matter: Recording brain waves to determine if distracting the human mind can affect pain tolerance

Tristen Shields
Grade-8 Project Number- 197
Title: Powering the Future
--The purpose of this science project is to compare the consistency and variables of three sources of renewable energy: hydroelectric, wind, and solar power. I predicted that hydro power will be the most efficient because it would have the most constant production of energy. The independent variable of my experiment was the time of day the sources were recorded. The dependent variable in my experiment was the amount of electricity each source produced. I measured the dependent variable by tracking the volts each source produced through a multimeter connected to it. The results of my experiment were that all three energy sources were efficient and reliable in their own ways. Wind and solar energy are efficient in accessibility, but not so much in consistency. Hydroelectric energy is efficient in consistency, but not so much in accessibility. The results of this experiment shows that my hypothesis was incorrect, for one energy source is not more efficient than the other, like I predicted. If I were to do this experiment again, with more time, I would collect much more data. For this experiment, I tested hydroelectricity once, and solar and wind power twice. I originally wanted to test it each three times, but I couldn't due to time constraints and bad weather. With more time, I would also figure out what went wrong with the hydroelectric generator and fix it so I could get actual results, and I wouldn't have to estimate what it would have done.

Amanda Shrock
Grade-10 Project Number- 326
Title: Does the ACE Gene Polymorphism Have Phenotypic Characteristics?
--The ACE gene produces an enzyme that converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II, which is responsible for vasoconstriction. Vasoconstriction is heavily involved in many body processes, particularly in the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Interestingly, the ACE gene contains a 287 base pair polymorphism that affects ACE enzyme production. This project tests the genetic polymorphism for phenotypic manifestation. The hypothesis is that those with genotype DD (deletion-deletion) will have the “healthiest” phenotypes: the shortest sprint time, longest plank time, lowest heart rates. Those genotyped as II (insertion-insertion) will have the “least healthy” phenotypes: longest sprint time, shortest plank time, highest heart rates. Those genotyped ID (insertion-deletion) will have the intermediate phenotypes. Unrelated volunteer participants from the community were phenotyped and genotyped. Genotyping was done through a one minute saline swish. The saline swish samples were transferred to the lab where the DNA was extracted, amplified and genotyped with electrophoresis. The phenotype of plank time supported the hypothesis with DD participants having the “healthiest” results of longest mean plank time. The heart rates after the 400m sprint did not support the hypothesis with DD participants having the “least healthy” results of highest mean heart rates. Age, gender and height were negative controls with no association, and the phenotypes of resting heart rate, sprint time, and heart rate after the plank did not show any significant differences in the means of the different genotypes, and therefore had no genetic association shown.

Paul Sittig
Grade-7 Project Number- 162
Title: Cruisin' on Air
-- The purpose of our project was to create an efficient motorized vehicular device to move on multiple surfaces. We asked what is necessary to create a motorized vehicular device (hovercraft) that can travel on a cushion of air over different surfaces? Our hypothesis was that our experiment will prove that when airflow is created and managed properly, this vehicle can be lifted and moved across different surfaces. To test the ease of movement, we measured the amount of time it took the hovercraft to move seven meters on different surfaces. This measurement revealed that concrete caused the least amount of friction. We discovered that the design of the hovercraft must balance power and weight to be allowed to move initially. We also discovered that the friction of a surface will impact at what rate it will move.

Kylie Skinner
Title: Do Mints Have a Cooling Effect?

Ethan Smiley
Grade-12 Project Number- 372
Title: Investigating the Effects of Rhizobacteria From the Pseudomonas Genus on Solanum lycopersicum
--Rhizobacteria are bacteria that colonize in and around the plant’s roots in the soil. Rhizobacteria can either be harmful or beneficial to the plant. Beneficial rhizobacteria are known as Plant-Growth-Promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). In this experiment, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus thuringiensis were isolated from the soil surrounding a Hemerocallis and sequenced. Pseudomonas putida was then selected to test for growth promoting capabilities by inoculating the roots of Solanum lycopersicum. Sixty total Solanum lycopersicium plants were grown, thirty that were inoculated with P.putida and thirty that were left untreated serving as the control. Number of leaves, height of the plant, and root dry mass were recorded and analyzed. The data shows no significant difference between the untreated plants and treated plants, suggesting that the strain of P. putida tested in this experiment does not inhibit or enhance the growth of the S. lycopersicium plants under normal conditions. Further testing and a larger data set would help confirm these results and analysis. Further tests of interests with P. putida include testing its ability to combat drought resistance and competitive inhibition of pathogenic strains of bacteria. P. putida may not be beneficial to the plant under normal conditions, but may help the plant combat abiotic and biotic stresses.
Beech Grove

Chloe Smith
Grade-6 Project Number- 141
Title: What liquid makes a plant grow the tallest?
--My project is What Liquid Makes a Plant Grow the Tallest. This is very important because it does help your plant grow. We need plants because that is one of our resources for food. Worm Juice provides some of the best minerals and is practically all earth. My problem was what liquid makes plants grow the tallest. For my procedure, you would need the list of materials on my board. Then just plant seeds like you would normally do when you are gardening. Then get Worm Juice, Miracle Grow, and Water. After 22 days of growth pull your plants and measure. Then you have your results. My results were that the Worm Juice plant grew the tallest. Water was second. Miracle Grow was third. The average Worm Juice plant was 5.2 in. The Water was 4.3 in. Then Miracle Grow was 1.5 in. My hypothesis was that the Worm Juice radishes will grow taller than the Miracle Grow radishes or the Water radishes. My hypothesis was correct.

Raghav Sriram
Grade-7 Project Number- 164
Title: Corn Crazy
--Walmart, Costco, Kroger, and other shopping companies use petroleum-based plastics anywhere in their stores from shopping bags to the packages they sell customers their products, these plastics have caused over 22 billion plastic water bottles to go to waste and hurts our ecosystem in unimaginable ways. This experiment will look into biodegradable bioplastics and see if they can replace traditional petroleum-based plastics. The hypothesis of this experiment is that the biodegradable bioplastic created will be stronger/more flexible than traditional petroleum-based plastics. The null hypothesis of this experiment is that the biodegradable bioplastic created will be the equivalent to the standards of a traditional petroleum-based plastics. The bioplastics were made using a set of ingredients and ratios that were predetermined at the beginning of this experiment. The strength of the bioplastic that was created was tested using a force gauge in which a person made a hole in the middle of the plastic and then pulled down on until the plastic tore, the number of newtons applied to the plastic until in tore was written down. After doing this process many times with different types of bioplastics the experiment data supported the experiment’s hypothesis by having a greater amount of newtons applied until the plastic tore compared to a control group of petroleum-based shopping bags. In conclusion, this experiment showed how the bioplastics created were stronger and more efficient than traditional petroleum-based plastics and could someday replace these plastics.

Elizabeth Stwalley
Grade-12 Project Number- 368
Title: "Neutron Detection with Centripetally Tensioned Metastable Fluid Detection"
--The purpose of my project was to test the Centripetally Tensioned Metastable Fluid Detector (CTMFD) for neutron detection with decafluoropentane (C5F10H2) as the detection fluid. To do this, I used the CTMFD to measure the detections per minute and the average waiting time between detections for Californium (Cf) and Americium/Beryllium (AmBe). Each substance was tested at 50 cm, 1 m, and 2 m for 50 detections. The average waiting time had a power relationship with the negative pressure, so as the negative pressure increased, the time between detections decreased exponentially. The opposite effect was seen with the detections per minute. The detections per minute had a logarithmic relationship with the negative pressure, so as the negative pressure increased the detections per minute increased exponentially.

Penelope Swift
Grade-9 Project Number- 321
Title: The best and the worst: Measuring macromolecules in fast food
--Fast food burgers are one of the worst ways to be healthy! The fatty and carb filled deliciousness is a weakness for most Americans. However, is there such thing as having one burger statistically healthier than others? The best; of the worst? By adding indicators to different burger mixes, it can in fact be achieved through observing and understanding the qualitative data. By recording and observing the reactiveness of the four most common macronutrients (glucose, starch, lipids, and proteins), the healthiest classic fast food burger can be identified. Throughout the experiment the substances Benedict Reagent, Lugol’s Iodine Solution, Sudan IV, and Biuret Reagent (independent variable) will be mixed with different restaurant burgers- and the reactiveness of the substance when mixed with the burger (dependant variable) will determine the results. Due to background knowledge, the Mcdonalds cheese burger should be statistically the most healthiest. This is because it has more condiments and extras that mask the fatty meat within the burger. However, after the experiment was conducted, it was concluded the classic Arby’s burger follows the recommended intake for macronutrients the best. Thus making that cold cut burger the best; of the worst.

Faisal Syed
Grade-7 Project Number- 156
Title: The Effects of Artificial Sweeteners on Drosophila melanogaster Circadian Rhythms
--Large amounts of artificial sweeteners are consumed every day with a belief that they are a healthier substitute for table sugar, sucrose. However, there is no clear evidence that it’s actually healthier. I tested fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, by feeding a range of both artificial and natural sugars since they have comparable taste sensation and sugar metabolism for sugars as humans. There is evidence that sucrose fed flies show reduced mobility, where as starved flies are more active. One such activity measure is to record their daily activity pattern known as circadian rhythms. I hypothesized that artificial sweeteners that taste sweet and do not satiate the flies will alter their behavior. I also hypothesized that flies that consume artificial sweeteners that have no taste and satiate the flies will not alter their regular activity pattern. I fed the flies on a sugar that taste sweet and is caloric (sucrose) and compared the circadian rhythms with the flies fed with sweet yet non-caloric sugars (sucralose and arabinose). I also fed them on sorbitol, a sugar substitute most commonly used in drinks and chewing gums. The flies were then put in an activity monitor to measure their daily activity pattern. My results indicated that the flies fed on the 2 non-caloric sugars, arabinose and sucralose, died within 2-3 days. The flies fed on caloric sugars, sucrose and sorbitol survived more than 7 days. Circadian activity of the sorbitol-fed flies was greater than sucrose. The least activity was recorded for sucralose and arabinose fed flies.

Kelsey Ternet
Grade-9 Project Number- 322
Title: Bye Bye Bacteria
-- The purpose of this project was to test which brand of household cleaner killed the most bacteria. Cleaners A, B, C, and D were used. The cleaners were used on bacteria and then the amount of bacteria killed after a 24 hour and a 48 hour time period was measured. Cleaner A is an all natural, chemical free cleaner. Cleaner B is the essential oil which is the main ingredient in Cleaner A. Cleaners C and D are name brand products that are more commonly found in households. Cleaner A was used to see how it compared to the other name brand cleaners which contain harmful chemicals. Liquid agar was made and then was poured into the petri dishes until the bottom was covered. Then they sat until they solidified. Bacteria was then spread on the correctly labeled dishes. Next, filter papers soaked in each solution were placed in the different sections. There were 4 circles in each dish. Then the plates were placed in the incubator for 24 hours. After that, the plates were taken out and a ring around the filter papers were measured. This showed where the bacteria was killed. The plates were placed back in the incubator for another 24 hours. The last two steps were repeated and then the bacteria was disposed of properly and the data was examined. The experiment resulted in Cleaner C killing the most bacteria. It cleaned an average of 3.02 cm of bacteria throughout the experiment. Cleaner A cleaned an average of 1.48 cm of bacteria. The hypothesis was incorrect.

Andrew Thum
Grade-4 Project Number- 109
Title: Opinions on Bugs
--My topic was bugs and kids opinions of them. At my school kids and teachers kill bugs without really giving them a chance. Plus, I tend to be teased by classmates because I am quick to save all living creatures. My passion is insects, arachnids, reptiles, and arthropods. I hypothesized that if my classmates learned about a few insects, then their opinions of them would change. I presented my potential project to our principal for approval. She loved the idea. After research and speaking with a bug expert, I chose millipedes because they are calm and the sow bugs, because those are familiar to kids. First I wrote a pre-test and gave that to my classmates. Next, I brought in a scientist to talk to my class about the bugs. The scientist first spoke about arthropods, and then we pooled the students who would hold them. I took a tally of the students that raised their hands that would hold them. Then the scientist and I walked the classroom with the three millipedes and sow-bugs to show what they could hold. Then I asked the students to raise their hand if they wanted to hold them. Then we let the students handle the bugs, some did, and some did not. I found that after my classmates learned about the millipedes and sow bugs, their opinions of them changed and they were more willing to hold them. Also, they stated that they would kill or hurt fewer bugs now. After the class learned about bugs, I noticed that my class was more willing to help me save earthworms and other animals during recess. I still love to talk about bugs to my class, and they now seem more willing to listen. The other fourth-grade class still steps on worms, and I want to try and educate them, so maybe their opinions would change to positive. My goal is to talk with our principal to see if I can do an inventory of all living creatures on our playground and develop a book for each class to have so the kids can become familiar with what we have. I have learned that through education, you can get people to do the right thing.
fort wayne

Haven Tiberius
Grade-6 Project Number- 144
Title: Viscocity Through Thick of This
--For my science fair project this year was to measure the viscosity of three viscous liquids in three different temperatures, 70 degrees, 40 degrees and -5 degrees. The purpose of this science fair project, was to see if changing the temperature of viscous liquids changes the flow rate of the liquid. The substances that I used were corn syrup, hand sanitizer, and vegetable oil. The procedures in this project is, I got three, 1 liter bottles and filled them with corn syrup, hand sanitizer, and vegetable oil. I put a steel ball in all of them and got a magnet to pull up the ball and drop the ball and let go of the magnet, then I started the timer. Then I put them in the refrigerator at 40 degrees and did the same steps. After, I put the bottle is the freezer and timed the flow rate. My results were interesting. In the room temperature the balls moved quicker than the 40 degrees. When I timed them when they were in the freezer they were all still a liquid and not a ice cube. Even though they were all still a liquid the ball wouldn’t move! I flipped the bottle upside down and the ball still would move.
Pleasant Lake

Rowan Tinker
Grade-8 Project Number- 170
Title: Zea Mays Fuel Craze
--In about fifty years, there will be no nonrenewable gasoline left, removing most transportation. Ethanol, made from biomass, is an alternative renewable fuel that could be the new gasoline, but the process of ethanol production needs to be improved. Four batches of corn-based ethanol were produced, each one (except the control) had one different variable (a smaller particle corn source, the added yeast nutrient of urea, and a different distillers yeast). My hypothesis was the variable urea would produce the highest average ethanol content samples. After the ethanol was produced, sixty grams of ethanol were put into a jar. The weight of the jar with the ethanol was measured. Then, all the ethanol was boiled off at 173.1 degrees Fahrenheit, and the weight of the water leftover with the jar was measured. This ending weight was subtracted from the starting weight (measurement before boiled). This was loss, in grams, of ethanol, and it was divided by the sixty gram sample it began with, calculating the percentage of ethanol. Thirty-nine more trials were done. Overall, the Control Ethanol samples averaged 19% ethanol, the Urea Ethanol Samples averaged 18.3% ethanol, the Different Yeast Ethanol samples averaged 15.8% ethanol, and the Small Particle Ethanol samples averaged 21.7% ethanol. In conclusion, the Small Particle Ethanol samples averaged the highest ethanol content, so my hypothesis was incorrect. However, the results, how each variable affected the samples, positive or negative, can be used to further the research and production of ethanol.

Lilly VanNess
Grade-5 Project Number- 117
Title: Don't Burst My Bubble
---Purpose My brothers and I love to chew gum and we are always seeing who can make the biggest bubble. I decided to figure it out in a scientific way so that I can always beat them! -Question What brand of bubble gum will blow the biggest bubble? -Hypothesis I think that Big League Chew will make the biggest bubble. -Materials Three different types of gum. Ruler, Notebook and pencil, A gum chewer -Procedure 1. Get 3 kinds of bubble gum. 2. Chew the first piece for 3 minutes and blow a bubble 3. Measure the bubble until it pops. 4. Record the size of the bubble. 5. Repeat steps 2-4 for all 3 brands of gum. -Independent Variable The type of gum -Controlled Variable Gum chewer Time gum is chewed -Results The 3 brands of gum that I chose all made great bubbles. They all were easy to chew and kept their flavor for a long time. The one that was consistently bigger at each test was the Big League Chew. -Conclusion If you keep the size of the gum, the length of the chewing time and the chewer the same, you will get accurate results. The Big League Chew proved to be the best at blowing big bubbles.

Audrey Walters
Grade-12 Project Number- 379
Title: Early Signs of Depression Based on Biometrics
--Biometrics have slowly been making an appearance into everyday society. Currently people can access their phone, bank account, and other important assets through a fingerprint. Some electronics even have an iris scanner, but there are more productive ways to use biometrics. Technology has slowly become an even greater part of our lives and some day it might even be able to predict emotional distraught. Using the software Affectiva, combined with surveys, eye-tracking, and a Galvanic Skin Response people are brought even closer to this possibility. Based on the results found depression is a measurable biometric, which can be predicted and noticed when certain functions show abnormalities. By measuring the patients level of depression through a questionnaire, the results are then compared to rest of the data given to show a trend between the depression level and visual response. This could go on and be adjusted to other mental disorders such as PTSD and Bi-Polar Disorder. Eventually most mental disorders could be predicted from an app on a persons phone.

Cole Weidenbach
Grade-6 Project Number- 130
Title: Piano Page Turner
--Piano players often have difficulty turning the pages of their sheet music as they perform. A foot-operated Piano Page Turner would allow both hands to continue to play without missing a beat. In order to design and construct this device, research was conducted and existing solutions were considered. Next, sketching and brainstorming ideas commenced. The best design was chosen and polished. Mechanisms that are operated by other parts of the body were also considered, but ultimately a foot pedal was chosen as the best design. Third, the necessary building materials were gathered and purchased, including wood, pulleys, string and hardware. Once the page-turning mechanism was built, testing and refining took place. The end product was a convenient page turner that turns pages of sheet music on a piano with a pedal push.

Anthony Weng
Grade-12 Project Number- 371
Title: Satellite Modeling of Wildfire Susceptibility in California by Using Artificial Neural Networking
--Wildfires have become increasingly frequent and severe due to global climatic change, demanding improved methodologies for wildfire modeling. Traditionally, wildfires are assessed through post-event, in-situ measurements. However, developing a reliable wildfire susceptibility model has been difficult due to failures in accounting for the dynamic components of wildfires (e.g. excessive winds). This study examined the feasibility of employing satellite observation technology in conjunction with artificial neural networking to devise a wildfire susceptibility modeling technique for two regions in California. Timeframes of investigation were July 16 to August 24, 2017, and June 25 to December 8, 2017, for the Detwiler and Salmon August Complex wildfires, respectively. NASA’s MODIS imagery was utilized to compute NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index), land surface temperature, net evapotranspiration, and elevation values. Neural network and linear regression modeling were then conducted between these variables and ∆NBR (Normalized Burn Ratio), a measure of wildfire burn severity. The neural network model generated from the Detwiler wildfire region was subsequently applied to the Salmon August Complex wildfire. Results suggest that a significant degree of variability in ∆NBR can be attributed to variation in the tested environmental factors. Neural networking also proved to be significantly superior in modeling accuracy as compared to the linear regression. Furthermore, the neural network model generated from the Detwiler data predicted ∆NBR for the Salmon August Complex with high accuracy, suggesting that if fires share similar environmental conditions, one fire’s model can be applied to others without the need for localized training.
Terre Haute

Jaytee Wesolowski
Grade-9 Project Number- 302
Title: Strengthening Concrete
--Foundations and walls of buildings break down due to high winds, earthquakes, and other natural disasters. My goal was to figure out what material can be added to concrete in order to prevent it from breaking easily. I made three sets of concrete samples. Each set included one normal concrete sample, one sample with Nikon, and another with wire. One set cured in a dry environment, another set cured submersed in water, and the last set cured in a freezer to simulate different weather conditions. I then dropped a twelve-pound sledgehammer head down a ten foot PVC pipe onto each individual concrete sample to test its strength. The concrete with wire held together the best in all three curing conditions. I found the best way to strengthen concrete is with wire.
South Bend

Benjamin Wilkerson
Grade-10 Project Number- 330
Title: Kinetic Energy & Magnetism: Movement for Free Electricity
--Production of electricity using fossil fuels emits carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and causes global warming. Alternative renewable energy sources include passive sources (e.g., solar) and active sources (e.g., wind, water). A lesser-known, yet promising, source of renewable energy is kinetic energy, where the body’s motion generates electricity. This research focused on understanding how to use kinetic energy to produce a voltage large enough to charge a cell phone (~5 volts). To accomplish this, an N50 magnet was passed through a coil of copper wire, and measured peak voltages were compared with predicted voltages calculated using a simplification of Faraday’s Law (V=MxAxN). Measured peak voltages were consistently larger than predicted (likely due to acceleration of the magnet), but generally matched the linear relationships predicted by Faraday’s Law. Specifically, increasing the rate at which the magnet moved through the coil (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 passes/second for 250 and 1000 loops) produced a corresponding increase in magnetic flux change (M). Similarly, increasing the number of coil layers (1, 2, 3, and 4 layers for 250 loops at 4 passes/second) caused a slight increase in coil area (A) and decrease in coil length that produced an increased peak voltage output. Finally, increasing the number of coil loops (N; 250, 500, 750, and 1000 loops at 4 passes/second) caused a corresponding increase in voltage output. The 5-volt goal was attained when the number of coil loops exceeded 750 at 4 passes/second and exceeded 1000 at 3 passes/second.

Rose Williams
Title: Do Mints Have a Cooling Effect?
--The purpose of this experiment was to see if mints have a cooling effect. We thought that putting mints into a cup of water will cause the temperature of the water to drop. We put the same amount of water into two identical cups and recorded the temperature. We added 2 mints to cup B, waited 5 minutes, recorded the temperature of both cups and repeated this process until 30 minutes had elapsed. With the three trials we completed, there was very little difference between the cup with plain water nad the cup with the mints. When we averaged the temperature change for all the trial, the plain water and mint water had the same temperature drop. It appears that mints do not change the temperature of water. This might mean that mints don't actually cool, it just feels that way.

Amanda Wilson
Grade-11 Project Number- 342
Title: Analyzing the Pesticidal Properties of Trichoderma harzianum
--Analyzing the Pesticidal Properties of Trichoderma harzianum AMANDA WILSON (Northwestern High School, 3431 N. 400 W., Kokomo, IN 46901) The purpose of the project was to determine an alternative to synthetic pesticides. It was hypothesized that Armadillidium would not survive in the presence of Trichoderma harzianum. Phase I included four experiments. In Experiment I, Armadillidium were exposed to the symbiosis between corn plants and Trichoderma harzianum. 100% of control Armadillidium survived while only72% of experimental Armadillidium survived; Trichoderma harzianum had a significant impact upon the Armadillidium (t = 2.75 > t.05 = 2.31). In Experiment II, a choice chamber was used to determine if a preference is shown for control corn plants or Trichoderma harzianum corn plants. The Armadillidium spent an average of 66.6% of the time on the control side and 22% on the Trichoderma harzianum side. Experiment III, also in a choice chamber, used agar plates inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum. The Armadillidium spent an average of 65% of the time on the control side and 21.2% on the Trichoderma harzianum side. In Experiment IV, Armadillidium were fed Trichoderma harzianum. 96% of the control Armadillidium survived while 0% of the experimental Armadillidium survived; Trichoderma harzianum had a highly significant impact upon the Armadillidium (t = 24 > t.01 = 3.36). In Phase II, Trichoderma harzianum cultures were exposed to various pesticides in field concentrations. “Atrazine Weed Killer” had no significant impact (t = 1.58 < t.05 = 2.23), “Patch Pro Fungicide” had a highly significant impact (t = 25 > t.01 = 3.17), and “Bifen I/T” had no significant impact (t = 1 < t.05 2.23) upon Trichoderma harzianum. Ultimately, the hypothesis was supported. Experiments I and IV demonstrate that Trichoderma harzianum can decrease the survivorship of Armadillidium. Experiments II and III suggest that Armadillidium are deterred by Trichoderma harzianum. Phase II indicates that Trichoderma harzianum can survive in field concentrations of insecticides and herbicides. Based upon these results, Trichoderma harzianum has the potential to act as a natural alternative to synthetic pesticides.

Kylie Workman
Title: Wash Your Hands
--What is the best way to wash your hand, with hand sanitizer or hand soap? We took 5 soaps and 2 hand sanitizers and tested to which one would clean our dirty hands the best. Our hypothesis was that the Betco soap ( which is used at our school and was also anti- bacterial) would clean our hands the best. We did some back ground research and looked up each brand of all soaps and hand sanitizers. After doing all our test it came out that the Soft Soap worked the best which did not support our hypothesis.

Eli Wrightsman
Grade-4 Project Number- 102
Title: Tart Cherry Juice: A Solution to Better Sleep
--I've heard people complain that they don't get enough sleep at night and that they often feel tired even when they've slept for 6-9 hours. I wanted to find out what would help people feel less tired, so I thought about what might help them sleep better. My dad told me he heard Olympic athletes say they drink tart cherry juice before bed to help them sleep better. I wanted to see if this was true and if it would help my dad and others like you sleep better. This project was done to find out if people could sleep better by drinking tart cherry juice before bed. My hypothesis is drinking tart cherry juice before bed will help improve your deep sleep. Since deep sleep helps you feel more energetic and rested, I needed to determine if tart cherry juice would help my dad and others get better sleep by increasing the time they are in deep sleep mode. Finding the right amount of tart cherry juice to drink each night was very important. I knew I’d have to measure his sleep to find out if when he drank tart cherry juice and different amounts of that tart cherry juice if his deep sleep and light sleep modes would change. I also needed to see if his awake time would change. I thought about what device could measure his sleep. I realized my dad's Garmin watch measures sleep, so I used his Garmin watch to track his deep sleep, light sleep, and awake time. I figured out from this test that when my dad drank tart cherry juice before bed, his deep sleep increased, and his light sleep decreased. The results showed that when my dad didn't drink any of the tart cherry juice before bed, he was in deep sleep mode 26.3% of the time. When my dad drank 4.oz of tart cherry juice before bed, he was in deep sleep mode 34.7% of the time. When my dad drank 8.oz of tart cherry juice before before, he was in deep sleep mode 29.5% of the time. I can conclude from this that when my dad drank 4.oz of tart cherry juice, he was in deep sleep mode the longest. The results showed that when my dad didn't drink any tart cherry juice before bed, he was in light sleep mode 71.0% of the time. When my dad drank 4.oz of tart cherry juice before bed, he was in light sleep mode 64.1% of the time. When my dad drank 8.oz of tart cherry juice before bed, he was in light sleep mode 67.9% of the time. I can conclude from this that he was in light sleep mode the longest when he didn’t drink any tart cherry juice. The results also showed that when my dad didn't drink any tart cherry juice before bed, he was awake 2.7% of the time. When my dad drank 4.oz of tart cherry juice before bed, he was awake 1.2% of the time. When my dad drank 8.oz of tart cherry juice before bed, he was awake 2.6% of the time. I can conclude from this data that when my dad didn't drink any tart cherry juice, he was awake the most. I thought 8.oz of tart cherry juice would be better than the 4.oz or none, but that was not true. My dad’s percentage of deep sleep went up the most when he drank 4.oz and his light sleep and awake time went down. When he drank 8.oz, his deep sleep improved a bit but not as much as when he drank 4.oz. When he drank the 8.oz, his light sleep and awake time decreased a little bit in comparison to not drinking any tart cherry juice. This test helped me determine that drinking tart cherry juice before bed will help you sleep better. My hypothesis was correct. Also, restful sleep is not all about how much total sleep you get, but whether someone gets deep sleep. Maybe drinking tart cherry juice can help you sleep better too!

Eric Wroblewski
Grade-7 Project Number- 159
Title: Till or No-Till
--The purpose of my project was to find out how Till versus No-Till soil will affect how corn grows? I will demonstrate this project by using a 12 foot disk to till up the ground and left the other ground not tilled. I planted Hybrid seed corn in the plots for 150 days. Once grown, the corn was then picked with a combine. I then used a weight scale to test the weight of each row of corn. After my experiment, I found that by tilling the ground there is less of a yield than if it was No-Tilled. When you till you lose bushels to the acre. The data I have showed a 14 bushel per acre difference. The No-Till has a better yield than the tilled ground. If you till the ground will it be different, the data says yes it will change. It may not always change though. You can change it by different soil type, seed hybrid, chemicals, or fertilizer. Everything was the same in my experiment, but you could change something and you may still get the same results. This test took a long time to do and can be costly but by the time you have it tested and figured out you could save a lot more money in the long run. In conclusion, I think no-tilled ground is a better choice since it provided a higher yield per bushel.
Mighigan city

Abigail Yeager
Grade-9 Project Number- 323
Title: Engineering an Artificial Pancreas
--As diabetes is rising, the need for an artificial pancreas is also increasing. 29 million people have type 2 diabetes in the US alone, along with 3 million people with type 1 diabetes. 30% of type 2 diabetics require insulin to maintain a healthy blood sugar, while all of type 1 diabetics are required to have insulin. An artificial pancreas will be used to automatically give doses to the patient to help them reach a healthy and regular blood sugar. Not only does diabetes require endless blood testing and insulin does, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia do too. Hypoglycemia is when someone has a consistently low blood sugar without having diabetes; the same goes for hyperglycemia, only opposite. All of these blood sugar diseases require around the clock care as people need to check their blood sugar in case it gets dangerously high or low, an artificial pancreas will hopefully be used to demolish the need for any of this. In type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and in hyperglycemia, and artificial pancreas will be used to pump insulin. Whereas in hypoglycemia, the pancreas will be pumping in glucagon, which functions as a liquid sugar.

Keira Yesh
Grade-5 Project Number- 113
Title: Does Temperature Affect How Efficient Ferrofluids Clean Up Oil Spills?
--The purpose of this experiment was to determine if temperature affects the efficiency of oil clean up when using ferrofluid and a magnet as the clean up technique. The hypothesis was if temperature of the water decreases, then the calculated efficiency of oil clean up will increase. The null hypothesis was that temperature of the water will have no effect on oil clean up efficiency. A range of five temperatures from 1℃ to 62℃ to represent a range of temperatures were used for the trials, some being ocean water temperatures found along the coastal regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and 5 drops of ferrofluid were added to the 2.5 mL of mineral oil plus 14 mL of water-filled petri dishes. A magnet was swept across the mineral oil to try and pick up the magnetic oil, and then a graduated cylinder was used to measure how much oil was picked up, finally determining the efficiency with a math formula. More oil was picked up when the magnet/ferrofluid technique was used in cold water. The most efficient oil clean up happened when the water temperatures were at their lowest. The least efficient oil clean up occurred when water temperatures were at the highest temperatures. The results supported the hypothesis. I learned that the colder the water is, the more efficient the oil clean up is.