Kalika Raje
Grade-10 Project Number-
Title: Sheep-eating Maggots - What makes them different from the typical domestic flies?
--Flies especially, have a strong ability to detect dead matter. One contributing aspect is odor detection, and being able to smell dead matter quickly. Because there is less competition to be a parasite on live animals, being able to differentiate between live and dead animals would provide an evolutionary advantage. This difference has been observed between Lucilia Cuprina flies/maggots, where the international flies are acting as parasites, eating these sheep alive, while the domestic flies appear to be nonparasitic. Thus, understanding what causes that difference can provide a basis as to what the implications of this advantage could be, especially were this difference in genes to further evolve. In this experiment, the scientific questions were a) is there difference between the odor receptor genes of the parasitic and nonparasitic flies/maggots, and b) if so, what are those differences and what could they imply. The hypothesis of this study is that there is a differentiation between the odor receptor genes of the parasitic flies that allow them to identify live animals from dead animals. This was tested through the following procedure. From Flybase.org, an odor receptor gene from a fruit fly was sequenced along with four other collected sequences provided from my mentor's data collection. This included one South African maggot, two carrion flies from South Africa, and a carrion fly from Florida. After these genomes were sequenced, these sequences were placed in Augustus to find the predicted amino acid sequences. After all these predicted protein sequences were individually saved, Clustal Omega was launched. Using this software, the sequences were aligned and the results were analyzed to assess the similarities between these protein sequences.This process was repeated between all the predicted protein sequences of the four samples, yielding six comparisons total. The results of this investigation indicate that there is an inconsistent pattern depending on the sequence. However, if the initial third of the comparisons are ignored, where some of the strands did not start with any amino acid sequences, all of the comparisons showed that they matched fully, within a margin of one amino acid sequence. These observations imply that there is not a significant difference between the genes of the parasitic versus nonparasitic flies/maggots. Due to the very small sample size, more predicted protein sequences need to be compared against each other to come to more conclusive results.
Carmel

Caine Ardayfio
Grade-10 Project Number-
Title: Development of optimal microstructure in organic solar cell active layer through genetic algorithm
--The morphology of the microstructure in organic solar cells is critical to performance. A graph-based surrogate model was created to approximate the efficiency, measured as short circuit current, in the solar cell. Through the use of probabilistic graph-based optimization, a class of microstructure morphologies was optimized with an efficiency surpassing that of more conventional morphologies. These optimized morphologies surpass other microstructures’ efficiency as they better facilitate charge transport, generation, and reaction rate. Here we show a 53.6% increase in short circuit current, the metric for efficiency, from the solar cells with the currently believed optimal morphology. The optimized morphology was also found to align The designed morphologies featured two dendritic clusters of the donor material poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and the acceptor material phenyl-C61-Butyric-Acid-Methyl Ester (PCBM) exhibiting fractal properties. The algorithm designed microstructure contrasts with the currently believed optimal morphology featuring interdigitated strands of P3HT and PCBM due to its significantly higher efficiency. The fractal properties present allow for statistical analysis of the designed microstructures with natural fractals. We employ various means of fractal analysis to compare natural and designed fractals to further prove the validity of the obtained morphologies. The significant increase in efficiency of organic solar cells through graph-based evolution obtains an organic solar cell with an efficiency significantly greater than previous solar cells, proves the validity of graph-based surrogate models for the simulation of materials science models, and advances the vision of an inexpensive, efficient form of renewable energy.
Noblesville

Jacob Martin
Grade-10 Project Number-
Title: A Field Study: Sustaining Crop Growth in a Flooded Area Using the Application of Oscillatoria
--The purpose of this project is to test if Glycine max, Zea mays, and Pisum sativum can withstand a flood for a longer duration with the addition of Oscillatoria in a field test experiment. If Glycine max, Zea mays, and Pisum sativum are disturbed by flooding with the addition of Oscillatoria, then the crops will stay alive longer under the circumstances of field flooding. Field flooding can be devastating to farmers throughout the world. A negative control group was used for each crop type with normal watering and growing while a positive control group was used to place crops under flooded conditions. The experimental groups for the crops went under the same procedure as the positive control, but then a type of Cyanobacteria called Oscillatoria was added to each tank with different amounts and application dates. The flooded crops that received Oscillatoria quantitatively and qualitatively survived better than the plants that did not receive Oscillatoria. The Oscillatoria applied groups held a green and healthy appearance. Dissolved oxygen levels raised after the application of Oscillatoria and the pH of the soil was maintained between 7.8-8.2. The 350 soybeans increased in height by 25%, 330 soybeans by 35%, and 5828 PQ corn by 20%. Soybean t-Tests came back highly significant for experimental groups with low concentration and low delay of application. Oscillatoria releases butylated hydroxytoluene as a natural nitrogen fixator and produces oxygen that allows soybean and corn crops to survive under the circumstances of field flooding. The hypothesis is supported.
Kokomo

Gabriel Short
Grade-10 Project Number-
Title: Alternative Modes for the Decomposition of Organic Plastic
--The purpose of this experiment is to test lab made bioplastics in environmental type settings including exposure to the full light spectrum, solubility in fresh water and salt water, decomposition through redworms, and decomposition through yeast. The hypothesis is divided into four parts. If the bioplastics are exposed to the full light spectrum, then corn starch will decompose quicker that the other tested bioplastics. If the bioplastics are exposed to freshwater and saltwater, then each plastic will break down faster in the salt water. If the bioplastics are exposed to redworms, then xanthan gum will break down the fastest. If the bioplastics are exposed to yeast, xanthan gum will produce the most gas. The UV test showed no change over a week period, showing that the hypothesis was not supported. The salinity test shows that the plastic sandwich bag had no change, the xanthan gum and corn starch samples broke down better in freshwater, and arrowroot broke down better in saltwater. This partially supports the hypothesis. The worm test was inconclusive due to unexpected variables such as the water used for watering worms decomposing the plastic, worm death, basic worm care and/or breeding. The test for decomposition through yeast showed that of the variables, arrowroot plastic broke was the most decomposed. The hypothesis was not supported.
Kokomo

Lauren Brown
Grade-10 Project Number-
Title: Bovine Bacteria
--The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate how treating bovine with antibiotics, resistance can grow within the bodies of the beef cattle. Antibiotics have been known to save countless lives, but with overprescribed medications microbes are becoming more resistant to these antibiotics. Beef cattle are no exception. Beef cattle are a key resource to the planet, providing food to the world. But through the overuse of antibiotics, beef cattle are becoming more susceptible to harmful microbes. With my research and studies, we are able to view the effects of antimicrobials through beef feces. Currently, antibiotics are used in beef cattle production to fight off microbes that could cause drastic loss to the producers. Antibiotics are used individually, but can also be given to entire herds. Antimicrobials come in many different varieties including injections, feed additives, and water tank solutions. The most common type of individual treatment is by injection, but when large feedlots need medical attention, antimicrobials are usually fed to the cattle or given to them in a water tank solution. For the duration of the experiment, the antimicrobial being used is an injectable treatment, Draxxin. As stated above, Draxxin is an injectable antibiotic that can be bought with a prescription. It is used to treat respiratory infections in both beef cattle and swine. This antibiotic has been used on all three farms that are being tested for antibiotic resistance. The samples that are being used as the control have had no contact with Draxxin. The correct name for Draxxin is Tulathromycin. It is currently classed in the subclass macrolide antimicrobia. It is injected in the neck of the animal when given and has a withdraw period of fifteen days in ruminating cattle. It can be used in beef cattle and non-lactating dairy cattle. However, Draxxin may have some side effects that could be detrimental to the beef cattle industry. Antimicrobial resistance is that side effect. Antimicrobial resistance happens when the microbe causing the disease becomes immune to the medicine, such as Draxxin. This is caused because the medication is given too frequently, thus causing the microbe to become resistant to the antibiotic. This will cause tremendous issues because after microbes become fully resistant to antibiotics, there is no other medication to stop infections from microbes.
Butler

Sydney Hefty
Grade-10 Project Number-
Title: The Public Opinion of Natural vs. Synthetic Herbicides in the U.S.A. Today
--Sustainable agriculture is more than a catchy phrase; it is the natural law approach to feeding mankind in the future without stripping the earth of its natural resources. The purpose of the research was to formulate the ideal market strategy for a new natural herbicide. The methods and procedure used were to first to create a survey on the public opinion of herbicides. Then research the internet for related areas of research. After developing an introduction and questions, conduct the survey. obtain data from the survey to better understand the public opinion on natural herbicides. this will affect the formula for my natural herbicide. The results show Question #14 had 18 responses choose strongly agree to their preference of a synthetic herbicide. That group of 18 then had 7 responses that strongly disagreed to the preference of natural herbicides in question #10. Those 7 make up 6.67% of the surveys which would place them in the Laggards category. Also, Question #10 had 16 responses choose strongly agree to their preference of a natural herbicide. That group of 16 then had 5 responses that strongly disagreed to the preference of synthetic herbicides in question #14. Those 5 make up 4.7% of the surveys which would move that group from Innovators to Early Adopters. In conclusion, Since 1974 glyphosate has been tested and found to be harmless to humans. However, public opinion is turning away from trusting these results and towards questioning their food supply. If the public opinion trend in Europe to ban glyphosate were to spread to the United States, it could create more regulation around the chemical. That type of change would create an opportunity for natural home use herbicides to emerge as a new leader. Regardless of future regulations, chemical manufacturers should take notice of the emerging trend of consumers preferring a natural herbicide for home use. This trend has entered the Early Adopter stage and has only a small percentage of Laggards. Therefore, the hypothesis was correct.
Auburn

Atticus Refner
Grade-10 Project Number-
Title: The Effects of Direct Composting on Sweet Corn
--“The Effects of Direct Composting on Sweet Corn” Atticus Refner Introduction- I wanted to find out the effects of directly composting breads, fruits, vegetables, and combinations of the three to see how it would change the production of sweet corn. This is important because we waste a great deal of food and should try to not be as wasteful as we are. I chose breads, fruits, and vegetables because they are major food groups and we use a lot of them. I did not use meats and dairy because they spoil and rot too quickly. In my previous experiments I learned that separately composting fruits and breads did the best in increasing the nutrients in the soil. We all throw away more food than we should, and composting is a great way to reuse the leftover foods. Therefore, composting is an inexpensive and important way to help us all be less wasteful and more mindful of how we can all help save the planet. Rational- This experiment is a clear next step in what I have learned about composting breads, fruits, and vegetables and how it affects soil and plants. I want to find the best way to decrease waste and my carbon footprint while simultaneously increasing the production of more and healthier foods by composting. Procedures- First I rototilled the soil, measured out four equal rows, and dug furrows to put seeds in. I then proceeded to plant four equal rows of sweet corn, then split them in half to create eight equal segments of corn with the same number of plants in each segment. I then collected our household waste of breads, fruits, and vegetables. I used our waste equally amongst the different segments. I ensured that the amount of food waste was equal in all segment by the end of the experiment. I weighed, added water, and pureed the food waste before directly composting it to the soil. I dug a trench by the corn row segments, then evenly distributed the puree into the soil and covered it with the dug up soil. Then I measured all plant heights, number of ears of corn per plant, and overall harvest weight. At the end of the experiment I compiled the results to determine what had the greatest effect on plant production. Results- I discovered that composting vegetables and breads together did the best at increasing the total weight of the harvest. Composting fruits was the least helpful and actually harmed the production of corn in the end. Conclusion- My science fair experiment is important to anyone that has their own garden and would like to increase soil quality while helping save the Earth. We should all try to be as self-sufficient as we can and composting is one way to do so. We should all compost as much as we can to reduce waste, keep soil healthy, and do our part to try and preserve our world from the harmful chemicals and pollutants that are forced upon it.
Angola

Talia Thornton
Grade-10 Project Number-
Title: Infant Formula: Thickeners For Infants With Dysphagia
--My project is about testing different thickeners in formula for infants with Dysphagia. Dysphagia is a term to describe difficulty swallowing. In infants, Dysphagia can cause many different issues, such as pneumonia and neurological disorders. Since Dysphagia seems to be caused by a thin liquid filling the mouth in the infant, generating a choking hazard, the need for a thickener was very apparent. So I formed an experiment using a flow test and two different thickeners, rice and oatmeal cereal. In the end, the rice cereal thickener in infant formula stayed the most consistent and in the correct range it need ed to be considered "honey" thickness and/or "nectar" thickness. While oatmeal cereals honey consistency was good , its nectar testing was to thin to pass as nectar it fell in the slightly thick range. The cereal that should be used to thicken infant formula for infants with dysphagia should be rice because of how reliable it was during experimentation.
South Bend

Katianna Richardson
Grade-10 Project Number-
Title: The Impact of Learning on the Electrophysiological Response of Mimosa pudica
-- Mimosa pudica plants demonstrate rapid movement associated with a measurable action potential in response to touch stimulus (Gage, “Sensitive Mimosa”). Mimosa pudica also demonstrates the ability to learn and retain when some touch stimulus is not harmful (Gaglian). This research attempts to measure changes over time in Mimosa pudica’s electrophysical response to stimuli that do not result in harm.
Nashville

Logan Hutchinson
Grade-10 Project Number-
Title: Gutter Cleaner Prototype
--After speaking with my grandpa and listening to his complaints about having to climb up and down a ladder every few feet to clean his gutter, I decided that I was going to come up with a Gutter Cleaner that wouldn’t require so many ladder trips. The problem was, is it possible to build a device that clears all debris out of the gutter, including pine needles without damaging the gutter? Could I design a device that would be an improvement of what is already being sold? Key points in the steps I had to take, were I had to have enough power to operate the motors needed to power the device; the motors needed to be strong enough to operate the flapper at a specific speed. The flappers needed to be both sturdy and flexible to clear any debris away, without clogging the flapper. I found after several tests that sturdy, yet flexible rubber would accomplish this. After the flapper was designed, I proceeded to come up with a combination of motors and a battery that would have enough power to operate the flapper and move the device along the gutter. I would like to work on making the prototype remote control for easier use. I would also like to work on making the device lighter, so that it is easier to carry. The results show that the prototype I designed does clear all common debris including pine needles, leaves, and sticks with no damage to the gutter.
Evansille

Richard "Sam" Ottway
Grade-10 Project Number-
Title: Rocketing Our Way Into the Futrure
--In the near future, we are looking at landing a man on Mars. This is an incredible and daunting feat. That’s why having our rocket fuel being as efficient as possible is essential. For my Science Fair Project, I have been testing the efficiency of homemade rocket fuels in the hopes of assisting NASA in their search for a more efficient SRB Fuel (Solid Rocket Booster). The reason behind this is because it’s the least efficient part of the rockets. Once you ignite the fuel it burns fast, powerful, and hot but it can’t be shut off until it runs out of fuel. As you can see this a problem since it’s only enough fuel to get us out of the atmosphere. If we had fuel that could last longer, then space would keep the rocket moving at the same speed unless we put on the brakes and allow us to arrive at Mars in a viable time frame. From my tests, I found that a combination I created from two of the fuels proved to be best as it didn’t get too hot, but it had both great power and outlasted most of its competitors. Next year I’m planning on continuing my research by igniting these same fuels in rockets to see how well they fly. If the data I gathered this year was correct, then I should be able to file an efficient fuel source not only for model rockets but perhaps, actual rockets.
Evansville

Lillian Kolley
Grade-10 Project Number-
Title: Farming Practice Effect on Algae Growth
Grandview

Cassidy Luecke
This is a Team Project-14731-1539260733
Grade-10 Project Number-
Title: Death Rays: The Effect of UV Light on E. Coli Bacteria
Evanston

Madelyn Gearld
This is a Team Project-13839-1550507589
Grade-10 Project Number-
Title: Effect of Irradiation on Plant Growth
--The purpose of this experiment was to find the correlation between plant growth and the amount of radiation seeds were exposed to. The factors that we used to measure growth included plant height, number of leaves, and the time it took for initiated sprouting. The procedure we followed included sectioning and planting seeds which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiation. We then collected and compared data by taking photographs and tracking the height and number of sprouts, as well as recording the initiated germination time. After conducting our experiment, we found that the control group grew the best based on our variables, therefore disproving our hypothesis. We found the more radiation that the seeds were exposed to, the less growth was shown.
Brazil

Mitchell Sampson
Grade-10 Project Number-
Title: Naturally 3D Printing Away Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections, Year Two
--In the U.S., catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are responsible for 449,334 diagnoses/yearly, 13,000 deaths/yearly, and medical expenses of over $450 million/yearly. The cause is estimated to be E. coli 90% of the time, and approximately 18% of those strains are extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing, which is resistant to many antibiotics, such as penicillins and third generation cephalosporins. The engineering goal of this project was to use custom 3D printing and oregano essential oil (OEO) to create affordable, mass-producible, novel catheter inner lining designs that, compared to a control, would also reduce bacterial biofilm formation, lessening the risk of CAUTIs. OEO was chosen due to cost-effectiveness and its two major constituents, carvacrol and thymol, possessing a myriad of antibacterial properties that have shown effectiveness against even ESBL-producing E. coli strains. The first catheter prototype invented was modeled with focus on both fluid dynamics and synergistically-utilizing OEO. The second prototype was designed to optimize the contributions from the hydrophilic gels while remaining structurally sound because of its triangle-based architecture. Both prototypes were each printed three times without error using an incredibly ideal resin, DuraForm PA Nylon, for this application; furthermore, testing was then done with an E. coli inoculated, urine-simulating broth to judge the prototypes' CAUTI-prevention effectiveness by themselves, then with only a glycerin gel coating, and with a specially made OEO gel. The results underwent t-test analyses: highly statistically significant p-values affirm the achievement of the engineering goal and support the experiment's undeniable success.
Brazil

Annie Ostojic
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Targeting Cancer via Signaling Pathways: The Discovery of Gene CCDC191’s Function through miRNA SNPs, Gene Expression Data, and Proteomic Analyses
--According to a recent Johns Hopkins University study posted in May of 2018, the number of total genes in the human genome was recalculated to be 43,162 genes comprised of 21,306 protein-coding genes and 21,856 non-coded genes. Although many public databases provide scientists, bioinformaticists, and researchers with a plethora of data for these genes, the available data is often in an unstudied and disorganized format. Consequently, the functions of many genes remain unknown and a need exists to analyze their functions in pathways to meet a changing medical industry of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. One such gene is CCDC191, a coiled-coil domain-containing protein-coding gene, whose function has not been fully studied or defined. This research used data mining techniques and conducted functionality studies on gene CCDC191 by incorporating a variety of bioinformatics databases including Ensembl, GeneCards, UniProt, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Firebrowse, RNAseq, miRTarBase, COSMIC, KEGG, STRING and the Human Protein Atlas. Through this study, a heatmap of gene CCDC191 was developed, an analysis of its connection to functional pathways was performed, and its relationship to cancer development was evaluated. This study provides analyses and insights into gene CCDC191 which have not been performed prior.
Munster

Suhas Chundi
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Biosurfactant to Redeem Aluminum Contaminated Roots in Arabidopsis
--Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a constraint for crop production in acidic soil worldwide. When the pH is lower than 5, Al3+ is released to the soil and enters the root. It ceases root development of plant, inhibiting the uptake of essential minerals and causing transcriptional changes. Biosurfactants have been shown to remove heavy metal ions from soil during soil washing, and also bind heavy metal cations in aqueous solution. This experiment tested the ability of microbe produced biosurfactants to sequester Al3+ ions, thereby allowing proper root development. Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) was subjected to a number of Al3+ concentrations in the agar in which it was grown. The pH was properly adjusted to mimic the acidic soils where Al3+ is a free ion. Additionally, one of three species of microbes (1 fungi and 2 bacterium), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacillus subtilis, and Candida bombicola were plated below the Arabidopsis roots 1 week after germination. Controls with no Al contamination and/or no microbe were also planted. The plants were grown under fluorescent tube lighting. Following 2 weeks of growth, the Arabidopsis roots were photographed and root length and lateral root number were analyzed with ImageJ image analysis software. 3 separate trials were conducted with at least 2 plates of each microbe and Aluminum concentration. Microbe presence failed to redeem root length STATISTICS GOES HERE. Indeed, results indicated that the presence of microbe had a negative effect on root length. However, a better measure of root development may be lateral roots, as plants tend to grow straight through unproductive agar areas and form lateral roots in sustainable ones. Each surfactant producing microbe increased the number of lateral roots present when compared to the control group. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed the best lateral root development with MORE STATISTICS HERE.
Carmel

Nicole Segaran
This is a Team Project-13595-1547042865
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Development of a Single-Cell Tracking Method to Study the Effect of Sigma-1 Receptors on Glioblastoma Migration
--Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive brain cancer. It is characterized by extensive cell migration that allows tumor growth and recurrence; this migration is regulated by calcium signaling. This study focuses on the sigma-1 receptor, an endoplasmic reticulum protein that regulates expression of NMDA receptor calcium channels at the cell membrane. We investigated the significance of this receptor to glioblastoma migration using the sigma-1 receptor antagonist NE-100. We measured the effect of NE-100 on intracellular calcium concentration and found that it is lowered in a concentration-dependent manner. We also tracked glioblastoma cells in a three-dimensional cell culture and found that NE-100 has no effect on cell migration velocity or the proportion of cells undergoing directed motion. To measure cell migration, we constructed a fluorescent microscope capable of single-cell tracking in three dimensions. The microscope is based on a computer vision algorithm that measures a cell’s center and distance from the focal plane; stepper motors controlled by an Arduino then move the optical system to keep the cell in the image frame. This method models glioblastoma migration more realistically than traditional migration assays and has the potential to be used to screen other drugs for antimigratory effects or study the migration of other cell types. To make this method more accessible, we also constructed an incubator mountable to a microscope stage as a cost-effective alternative for live cell tracking.
Carmel

Kevin Chen
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Morphology and Function of CRH-Expressing Central Amygdala Neurons: The Potential Role in Pain and Pain Related Behavior
--Kevin Chen1, Junnan Li2, John Cheriyan2, Andrea Jones2, Briana Mork3, Shudi Zhou3, Patrick Sheets2,3 1 Zionsville Community High School, Zionsville, IN, and 2 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 3 Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN Chronic pain affects 100 million Americans, causing serious problems in various aspects of life. Current pain therapeutics have delayed and incomplete efficacy, creating a need to obtain experimental evidence for novel pain treatment approaches. The amygdala, an almond-shaped brain area in the medial temporal lobe, plays a key role in the emotional-affective dimension of pain. The CeA (central nucleus of the amygdala) encompasses the main output pathways of the amygdala and projects to pain modulatory systems through forebrain and brainstem connections. The CeA can be divided into a lateral (CeL) and a medial sub region (CeM). The CeL and CeM can project to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG), which is a key brain structure in descending pain modulation. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a peptide hormone involved in the stress response. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that CRH-expressing CeA neurons are involved in pain modulation. Our preliminary studies using CRH-TdToM Cre mice revealed that CRH is expressed in both CeL and CeM sub region. However, the differences in electrical properties, morphology and function in the CRH-expression CeL and CeM neurons and how these characteristics contribute to pain modulation remain unknown. Our current study utilizes electrophysiology, confocal imaging, Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-induced inflammatory (CFA) pain model, and CRH Cre transgenic mouse lines to carry out electrophysiological, morphological, and behavioral analysis to answer the questions mentioned above. Through whole-cell patch-clamp and confocal imaging, it has been determined that CRH-expressing CeL neurons are comprised of a relatively intrinsically and morphologically homogenous population while CRH-expressing CeM neurons are intrinsically and morphologically heterogeneous. With the data obtained regarding electrophysiology and morphology, we hope to build a more comprehensive understanding of CRH-expressing CeA neurons in pain modulation using CFA pain model.
Zionsville

James Lao
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Application of Radiative Cooling to the Development of New Inorganic Sunscreens
--Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. About 90 percent of skin cancers are associated with exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. The most efficient way to prevent skin cancer is to lower UV exposure by applying sunscreen. Inorganic sunscreens scatter and absorb UV radiation through nanoparticles, offering broad-spectrum protection. However, they lack the ability to cool the skin, which is highly desirable in the hot summer. The objective of this research is to develop new designs of nanoparticles to be used in sunscreens that can protect against UV radiation and utilize radiative cooling to cool the skin. Radiative cooling is a process in which infrared (IR) radiation is emitted through the sky window, wavelengths of 8-13 µm, directly into deep space while solar radiation is reflected into the atmosphere. Compared with traditional sunscreens which absorb most of the UV radiation and produce heat, new designs are expected to not only lower UV transmission but also emit IR radiation and reflect more solar radiation to lower the skin temperature under sunlight. We implemented a “Tape Method” to mimic sunscreen application on skin and used spectrometers to evaluate the effectiveness of new nanoparticles (BaSO4/CaCO3/CaO). Mixtures of 8% rutile TiO2 with 2% BaSO4 provided comparable UV attenuation and IR emission, but demonstrated improved UV reflection than 10% TiO2, indicating potential use in sunscreens. Experiments will be conducted to optimize new designs and measure the physical temperature change of the new sunscreens under direct sunlight.
Zionsville

Laney Houston
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Rotational Printing of Alumina
--Once processed, pure ceramic substances have incredible mechanical properties. Obtaining 100% pure density, while difficult, is the best way to achieve the highest form of properties. In this research, I investigate how the geometries of 3D printed parts affect their densities in hopes to find the highest density possible. I make alumina suspensions from A-16 powders, mix them, load them into syringes, and print with them with varying geometries using a 3D printer. After the parts are printed, they will dry slowly in a humidity chamber and be sintered. Then, their densities will be evaluated to find any correlation among the geometries and their densities. We anticipate the highest densities will lie within the part whose geometry has the most varied angles.
Lafayette

Isaac Lammers
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: How Many Programmers Does It Take To Hack a Light Bulb? An Analysis and Exploitation of ZigBee Vulnerabilities
--For years the Internet of Things (IoT) has been a growing phenomenon. It consists of a network of devices all communicating with one another to carry out a particular function. Whether their task is home automation, security, or even a control system of some sort these devices all operate through the internet and many through ZigBee. ZigBee is a protocol used for many IoT devices and builds off the existing 802.15.4 standard. The protocol itself is flawed in many ways but has been patched multiple times as well. At the time of writing this, ZigBee’s latest version is v3.0. As a result of these vulnerabilities found inside the protocol, it is possible to attack any device that uses ZigBee as its underlying protocol. This poses a serious threat to anyone who uses a ZigBee home automation device. Additionally, it is especially dangerous for companies because ZigBee is used in several industrial control systems. As a result, an attacker could potentially compromise and entire factory by tampering with the communications between the systems.
Delphi

Mario Perez-Ahuatl
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Twin Sperm Cells: Same but Different?
--Double fertilization is a unique biological event that occurs in flowering plants. This phenomenon consists of fusion of two male gametes (sperm cells) with two different female gametes located in the embryo sac. If the double gamete fusion event is successful, the development of a seed occurs. Arabidopsis thaliana, the weed plant used throughout this project, is widely used and is considered an excellent model species for plant laboratory research (Meinke et al., 1998). One long standing question in the plant reproductive research field is to understand how both sperm cells are targeted to each of the female gametes. One of the hypotheses is that the two sperm cells within a pollen grain may be different at the cellular level. If there are differences, are these differences determining the sperm cell fate to a particular female gamete? In this project we used Arabidopsis thaliana containing a Sperm Cell-MITOchondria-Green Fluorescent Protein (SC-MITO-GFP) marker (Matsushima et al, 2008) to quantify the number of mitochondria in the sperm cells of the pollen grains and investigate at the cellular level if mitochondria content may establish differences between sperm cells. Our results show that the number of mitochondria in sperm cells in each pollen grain is not equal. The mitochondria also seem to be unequally distributed between the two sperm cells within a pollen grain. The outcome of this experiment is a first step that will establish the basis for other experiments aimed to understand the process of differentiation of sperm cells which can provide better knowledge on how to manipulate double fertilization to produce better seeds.
Lafayette

Maria Solis Valtierra
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: do flower petals work on touchscreens?
-- During the summer of 2018 one day sitting and messing around came a thought to me. What if flowers and other living plants/ fruits worked on a touchscreen? So I got some flower plants and rub them across the screen, and surprisingly it worked! I used a banana also and it worked. When school resumed I found out our school did the science fair so id figure it would be great to be apart of it. My Science project is not too complex nor very long, but something that requires research and a bit a try it out. For my project I hope to prove that plants, such as flowers work on a iPad screen and the reason they do along with other things that could possibly work. The main focus is the flower petal and other parts of the flower working on a touchscreen, the main flower used will be a rose petal and possibly and other flower petal if I am unable to use roses. During my research I found out that the reason rose petals work fine on a touchscreen is because they have nutrients flowing through them, but they also create a oily layer that allows the cells to move inside of the petal to make screen function. What also allows a flower petal to work is nutrients, such as water and pollen that flow and are retained withing it. This allows the flowers cell membrane and its structure to conduct the electricity and move the screen up or down, and function as if it were were a touch pen. Through my project i will be recording myself to demonstrate it being done and when in the science fair i will have a sample for judges to try. I will be using roses, and if that flower is not available i will use a different flower which should be recorded. The petals will be inserted into a straw to make the manuavering easier and better to use. If petals dont work through the straw them the flower petal will be used wth the hand.
Fort Wayne

Kevin Wang
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Portable Scanning Probe Microscope
--Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) are a group of advanced and expensive experimental instruments frequently used in physics, material science and engineering. A particular important branch of SPM is atomic force microscopy (AFM), which utilizes the attractive force between the atoms of the AFM probe and the atoms of the surface of the specimen to characterize the surface profile of the specimen. I learned about a model system of the AFM and here present the assembly of an inexpensive, portable version of the probing force microscope. The system is constructed predominantly of home-made pieces with minimal commercial parts. The control is done through a standard Raspberry Pi interface using a Python program. The size of the system is very portable compared with a commercial “real-world” AFM system with minimal cost. I further calibrated the sensitivity of the system and report here the details of the system. Further study and improvement of the probing microscope system is also discussed in the presentation.
Fort Wayne

Ellie Hancher
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Factors Affecting Hand Steadiness
--All people have different morning routines, some start their day with a hot shower, maybe a nice breakfast, or a large cup of coffee. Whatever is needed to get a jumpstart on their day. Many variables go into this seemingly simple task, such as how much sleep did you get the night before? How much caffeine is really in those two cups you drank, how much sugar did you consume with your breakfast? This leads to my overall question; How do these 3 common factors affect the steadiness and coordination of your hands? Hand steadiness and coordination ability is necessary in many aspects of life and are important in regards to many high risk jobs and the ability to perform basic functions. In order to show how important hand steadiness is and how easy it is to mess up, I thought it would be interesting to have testers play Operation, because I know in my household full of medical professionals, Operation is played like life and death. I had each person play Operation, counted their amount of buzzes (mess ups) and timed their attempts. Afterwords I asked questions to find out their intake of caffeine, sugar, and amounts of sleep. After analyzing these results of the average amount of sleep, caffeine and sugar the testers had in their system, I was able to make correlations between these substances and hand steadiness.
Auburn

Gabriel Hefty
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Aquaponics Phase IV: Increasing Growth Rate of Koi
--The purpose of this year’s research was to continue research that began three years ago, studying the relationship between fish and plants. I chose this research because of articles I read in farm publications stating there is a health danger due to a lack of fresh and healthy food. The articles continued to explain that fresh and healthy food can aid in the fight of obesity. Therefore, my purpose is to research the relationship between fish and plants to produce fresh and healthy food. Expanding on last year’s results and the suggestions given by national judges, I developed a procedure for my research in the following sequence. I purchase supplies needed, constructed filter and aerator system, obtained five reps each of koi fish, checked water quality, planted lettuce, and recorded data. My results showed koi fish could survive in a confined environment using lettuce to remove fish waste. My conclusion was that aquatic system can produce three crops of lettuce and be easy to maintain while koi have average or above average rate of growth. My long-term goal is to develop a system that will fit into a garage and will produce fresh food for a family and provide an added income.
Auburn

Kelly Skwarcan
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Comparison of Caffeine Content in Various Coffee Retailers
--The world's most common drug is caffeine, a psychoactive stimulant. Currently, Americans consume 400 million cups of coffee each day. In this experiment, 100 samples of coffee were taken over the course of two years from 20 different locations of 8 coffee retail chains. The average caffeine concentration was calculated for each location along with the average caffeine "dose" in a 12-oz cup. The Waters TQD Acquity Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS system and Bruker Compass Data Analysis were used to run and analyze the samples, respectively. The location with the highest average caffeine concentration was Panera on Main Street in Mishawaka with an average of 163.1 g/mL, while Burger King on SR 23 had the lowest average with 79.7 g/mL. The retailer with the highest standard deviation was McDonald's on Ironwood Road with 65.3 g/mL. Burger King on SR 23 had the lowest standard deviation with 7.7 g/mL. In order to better compare the different locations, the coefficients of variation were also calculated. McDonald's on Ironwood Road had the highest variance at 50.8%, while the Panera on Main Street in Mishawaka had the lowest at 5.1% variance.
South Bend

Grant Wiarda
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Evaluating the Effects of Retrofitting a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell With Tungsten Carbide Nanoparticles
--In today's society, fears of climate change and the adverse effects of pollution have fueled a strong push for greater reliance on renewable energy sources. Such sources include wind turbines, solar panels, and even apparatuses that can harness the power of the ocean's waves. However, these are all quite inefficient and thus not cost effective. One possible solution to this worldwide problem would be greater implementation of direct methanol fuel cells, also known as DMFC. A direct methanol fuel cell, ohm resistor, and methanol of different molarities was used in this investigation. In order to retrofit a new catalyst layer in the fuel cell, a solution of 100mg tungsten carbide nanoparticles per 1mL of Nafion solution was created and painted onto both sides of a 3cm X 3cm piece of electrode tissue. This electrode tissue was then implemented in place of the original platinum catalyst. A second solution was also created using 200mg tungsten carbide nanoparticles per 1ml Nafion solution. This solution was again painted onto both sides of a 3cm X 3cm piece of electrode tissue. Then, the new catalyst layer was retrofitted in place of the 100mg tungsten carbide catalyst. Trials were run using the control electrode tissue with 0.2mg platinum for every cm^2 concentration of platinum, electrode tissue plated with 100mg tungsten carbide per mL Nafion, and 200 mg tungsten carbide per mL Nafion. The 200mg tungsten carbide catalyst yielded comparable results to the control catalyst when operating on 0.5M methanol. This results proves the feasibility of the possible large scale implementation of direct methanol fuel cells with less expensive catalysts.
Granger

Jacob Heintzelman
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: In Silico evaluation of resistance-proof insecticides for control of malaria transmission
--Malaria is a disease spread by parasitic protists of the genus Plasmodium through a complex interaction between people and mosquitoes. This disease is one of the largest causes of human mortality in impoverished countries, killing an estimated 445,000 people in 2016 from four continents and causing over 216 million human infections. Insecticides such as DDT are commonly used to combat malaria by killing mosquitoes which transmit the disease. Unfortunately, due to the short lifespan of mosquitoes, resistance has spread rapidly through mosquito populations. One solution to this problem of resistance could be the development of an insecticide which targets only the older mosquitoes, instead of killing all mosquitoes instantly. Such an insecticide could have dual effects: because it kills only the older mosquitoes, it would not promote resistance as all females would have a chance to breed multiple times. Because malaria is spread only by older mosquitoes, the insecticide also, if designed correctly, would be able to kill the infectious mosquitoes before they could infect humans. In order to better specify this pesticide, I created a computer simulation of the malaria transmission process with the NetLogo coding language. Through this model I was able to simulate the effects of an instant acting insecticide, the removal of stagnant water from around the people, and a late acting insecticide. These simulations suggest that removal of water is the most ideal solution; however, this is a logistically unrealistic option. Intriguingly, the late-acting insecticide diminished both the number of resistant mosquitoes and the number of infectious bites to a significant extent. These results provide valuable insight into the possible design specifications of optimally effective insecticides, thus potentially saving millions of people from malarial infection.
South Bend

Ankush Dhawan
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Robust Cobalt Complexes For CO2 Reduction
--The reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to energy rich molecules can reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and aid in limiting CO2 levels in the atmosphere. Significant research has been reported with the goal of converting carbon dioxide to chemical fuels. One aspect of these efforts involves the search for homogeneous metal complexes that can electrochemically reduce carbon dioxide efficiently and selectively. As indicated in prior literature, rhenium based catalysts offer efficient and selective reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. However, rhenium metal is much too expensive and not abundant for long-term use, especially on the industrial scale. For this reason, significant research and exploration has been conducted into other transition metals complexes for the reduction of carbon dioxide. Herein, the research reported synthesizes various cobalt complexes with different ligands (terpy, phen, tBu-bipy) and explores them for activity compared to the leading rhenium complex, Re(tBu-bipy)(CO)3Cl, in an effort to find a more economical metal complex for the reduction of carbon dioxide. Cyclic voltammetry of these complexes was studied in the presence of inert nitrogen gas and under carbon dioxide at a glassy carbon electrode in acetonitrile in order to observe catalytic activity. Initially obtained chloride salts of these complexes were converted to perchlorate salts by ion exchange to increase solubility in acetonitrile. Compared to the leading rhenium complex, all synthesized cobalt complexes indicated better efficiency per cost. The cobalt complexes [Co(terpy)(CH3CN)](PF6)2, [Co(tBu-bipy)2(CH3CN)2](ClO4)2, and [Co(phen)2(CH3CN)2](ClO4)2 exhibited notable efficiencies being up to 54, 75, and 100 times more effective per unit of cost respectively. Coupled with the abundance of cobalt being 1000 times greater than rhenium, these complexes are more capable candidates for CO2 reduction based on economic viability.
Newburgh

Mackenzie Hunt
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Welcome to "Sistance"
--Children with vocal, visual, or auditory deficits are constantly faced with communication barriers. Children with these restrictions often have trouble communicating and learning. They can show signs of frustration and aggression because of their limited connection to the world, thus, further impairing their ability to learn. Because of these restrictions, fundamental learning concepts can take a longer time to develop. With the product I have designed, these children could have a portion of that time back. In this project, a system was designed that not only stimulates three senses in relation to standard communication, and cause/ effect learning, but that is easily accessible, inexpensive, and pocket sized. After interviewing the educators of these children, an application was designed to meet the need of both the children and their families. This application included three sense stimulation, as well as, a simple, attachable guide which created improved tactile discrimination of the system. This combination of features allow for the child to take advantage of technology and learning in their functional environment.
Evansville

Caroline Christ
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Molecular Weight in Relation to Molar Absorptivity
--The purpose of this project was to find a relationship between the molecular weight of a compound and its molar absorptivity constant at the compound's wavelength of maximum absorbance. How does molecular weight affect a compound's molar absorptivity? It is predicted that as molecular weight increases, molar absorptivity will also increase. This is because as the ions in solution become larger, their ability to absorb light should increase. This question will be tested using a spectrophotometer to measure each compound's absorbance at their wavelength of maximum absorption and comparing the calculated molar absorptivity of each to their molecular weights. It was found that as molecular weight increases, there is also a general increase in molar absorptivity; however, no direct relationship was found. These results support the prediction that an increase in molecular weight, as well as size, may contribute to an increase in molar absorptivity. Further research must be done to provide a full examination of this relationship. The results found in this experiment, however, reject the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between the molecular weight and molar absorptivity of a compound.
Terre Haute

Peter Christ
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Effectiveness of Different Methods of Water Purification
--In this experiment, an attempt was made to determine which system of water purification is the most cost-effective. The question this experiment aimed to answer was :"Is distillation the most cost-effective system of water purification?" It was hypothesized that distillation would be more cost-effective than other methods of water purification tested in this experiment. This was hypothesized because the operational cost of purifying water by distillation comes only from energy used, while the other methods involved a cost for materials that must be replaced after a given volume of water. Water was purified using three different techniques: distillation, filtration, and chemical additives. The cost it took to purify a water sample was measured, as well as the volume of the system's output. Distillation had an average operational cost of 0.26 $/L, filtration had an operational cost of 0.02 $/L, and chemical additives had an operational cost of 0.50 $/L. The null hypothesis was not rejected, as the data showed that a water purification method other than distillation operated at a lower cost than distillation.
Terre Haute

Emma Holder
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Comparison of Straight and Blended Motor Oil Viscosities
--This experiment is to determine whether or not the viscosity of a blend of motor oils can be determined by the ratio and weights of the oils being blended. Is the viscosity of blended motor oil related to the two straight weight oils that it is blended from and the ratio in which they were blended? It was hypothesized that if two motor oils of different weights are together, then the viscosity of the resulting oil will be between the two original oils' viscosities in concurrence with the ratio of the blend. This is because the two oils blended together will have the viscosity of the smaller weight at lower temperatures, and the and the viscosity of the larger weight at higher temperatures, so more of a lighter weight will lower overall viscosity, and more of a heavier weight will raise the overall viscosity. This hypothesis will be tested by determining the viscosity of oil blends at a range of temperatures, then comparing the the viscosity vs. temperature curves of the straight weight oils to the blends. The slopes of each viscosity curve fit where they should according to the blending ratios. At lower temperatures, the viscosities of the blended oils were within 6.4% percent error to calculated viscosity based on the straight oils' viscosities and ratios. However, as the temperature increased, percent error grew to as much as 28%. This data negates the null hypothesis, but not to the extent expected.
Terre Haute

Bethany Petry
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Why You Gotta Be So Rude?
--Rudeness can be defined as insensitivity to the feelings of others. I believe there are two types of rudeness--unintentional and intentional. It's my hypothesis that those with the Myers-Briggs personality type INTP (Introvert, Intuition, Thinking, Perceiving) are more likely to be unintentionally rude. In other words, these individuals won't be able to perceive body language and emotional signals from others. So, when interacting with others, these individuals may come across as being "rude" by apparently disregarding the feelings of others--and yet this is unintentional and unavoidable. On the other hand, I believe that individuals with the Myers-Briggs personality type INTJ (Introvert, Intuition, Thinking, Judging) are more likely to pick up on non-verbal cues, and so can rightly interpret how others feel. Because of this, they can choose to ignore the feelings of others. When they do this, they are intentionally rude.
Huntington

Asia Wyatt
Grade-11 Project Number-
Title: Dairy Science
--Products from dairy fermentations, such as lactic acid, are crucial to the sensory properties of many foods including flavor, texture or curd coagulation in cheese, and preservation of food by producing an acidic environment that prevents spoilage and pathogen growth. By making improvements on the formulation of standard culture broth for lactic acid (probiotic) bacteria, the dairy industry would have more options for enhanced quality control and hygiene monitoring. By growing the lactic acid bacteria, taking optical density (OD) readings on the growth curves for several of these species, the comparative rates of growth for each were determined. Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus bulgaricus were recovered significantly higher counts from cheese in nitrous acid mMRS than MRS while there was no significant difference for other species and food systems. All lactic acid bacterial species along with and Bifidobacterium longum grew to significantly higher densities in nitrous acid mMRS and MRS while there was no significant difference in the density of Enterococcus faecalis. It was determined that nitrous acid mMRS is a viable alternative media for the culturing of various lactic acid bacteria for the food industry.
Muncie

Shreyas Iyer
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: Impact of Targeted Defect Introduction in Metal-Organic Frameworks on Catalytic Behavior
--Despite the increasing need for renewable energy, the efficiency of clean energy sources such as hydrogen fuel cells is incredibly low, making widespread implementation difficult. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are large crystalline networks consisting of inorganic metallic ions bonded together by organic linkers. These structures have nanoscale pores and incredibly high surface areas; however, MOFs operate far below their theoretical efficiency when used in hydrogen fuel cells as electrocatalysts. Studying the interaction between hydrogen gas and MOFs is a necessary step toward understanding how to improve the hydrogen fuel cell’s efficiency. I hypothesized that removing linker molecules of the MOF in a targeted fashion would increase the efficiency of the reaction because the hydrogen gas would come in contact with a larger surface area of the catalyst. Using Lattice Boltzmann modeling, I created a computational model that allowed me to introduce a certain percentage of targeted defects in the MOF[808] structure. Trials were conducted at 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% structural defects on the MOF’s surface. The model was written in C++ using the Palabos Lattice Boltzmann translator. This model defined the catalyst structure and the laminar/turbulent flow of the hydrogen gas. Using computational modeling allowed me to screen characteristics of hundreds of different MOF structures rapidly. By altering the differential pressure (.02, .04, .06, .08, .10 mu lu-2 ts-2), I was able to calculate each MOF’s adsorption ability, effective permeability, and equilibrium efficiency at the various defect levels. I conducted over 1,250 simulations using found that MOF[808] structures with defects across 5% of their surface increase catalytic efficiency by 37% and adsorption by 14%. My results suggest that targeted defect introduction in MOFs can drastically improve the performance of hydrogen fuel cells, an emerging source of clean energy.
Munster

Sepehr Asgari
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: Targeted Enzyme Replacement Therapy for the Treatment of Barth Syndrome
--Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a rare X-linked recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in the gene coding for tafazzin, a phospholipid transacylase heavily implicated in cardiolipin metabolism. BTHS patients are unable to convert nascent cardiolipin to its mature form, with metabolic consequences such as oxidative phosphorylation inefficiency and low neutrophil counts. Patients usually die in infancy from cardiac failure or infection and no specific treatments for the underlying cause of BTHS exist. In this research, a recombinant tafazzin-cardiac targeting peptide (hTAZ-CTP) fusion protein is proposed as an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for BTHS patients. The presence of CTP allows for tissue-specific administration and successful cellular uptake, two challenges in developing conventional ERTs. Recombinant protein expression and purification was performed, yielding significant protein at high purity. This protein was used in subsequent immunofluorescent imaging studies analyzing the cellular uptake and co-localization of hTAZ-CTP to the mitochondria of H9c2 cardiac myoblasts. However, successful cellular uptake was not observed in this study, although a high background signal due to non-specific binding of hTAZ-CTP is likely to have interfered with the intracellular signal, not allowing for accurate visualization. Further optimization of the immunofluorescent protocol to remove the background signal is necessary in order to analyze uptake efficiency and co-localization of hTAZ-CTP in future research.
Zionsville

Parker Jou
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: Flock Disintegration: The Collapse of Unified Collective Motion in a System of Self-Propelled Particles
--Collective motion is a phenomenon of order motion that attracts much scientific interest because of its presence in a wide variety of applications such as the flocking behavior of birds or self-assembling nanoparticles. This study examines the nature of flock splitting, a specific behavior in which, though collective motion and aligned movement is not disrupted, a flock of collectively moving particles loses cohesion and splits into smaller sub-flocks. Though there is plenty of literature that establishes the basis for collective motion and the modeling thereof, there has been no literature thus far that explicitly examines why flocks spontaneously split even as the individual particles maintain a course of ordered motion. This study proposes a new model to explain this behavior and analyzes its properties. Using an examination of saturated flocking structures as well as an incorporation of variables such as a rotational damping (otherwise known as a momentum factor) and initial density, the study finds optimal behavior with regard to flock cohesion can be effectively induced by controlling initial starting conditions and by maintaining control of certain variables throughout the progression of the splitting process, most notably, the aforementioned rotational damping. Further analysis was conducted on the sub flocks formed using a novel measurement of effective density that takes into account differences in particle distribution. The results of the study provide insight into the observation of natural systems like schools of fish and are of particular interest to design optimization of artificial systems such as drug delivery or drone systems.
Carmel

Kayla Bevington
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: The Effects of Electronics vs. Paper on Memory
--The purpose is to test if subjects memorize better on electronics or paper. I hypothesized that if participants took tests on both paper and electronics then the scores of the tests taken on paper would be higher on average. In this experiment, the participants took a total of four tests. Two tests on paper and two tests on electronics. There were also two different types of tests. One had a total of ten randomly selected words to study with a test consisting of a total of thirty randomly selected words, ten of which were the words studied. The second test had a total of ten SAT words and definitions to study with a test where the participant had to match the definitions to the words. For the test with ten random words, participants would study for five minutes, watch a video for five minutes, and have up to five minutes to complete the test. For the test with the ten SAT words participants would study for ten minutes, watch a video for five minutes, and have up to five minutes to complete the test. SAT tests taken on paper scored on average of ninety percent while SAT tests taken on electronics scored an average of ninety-four. Random word tests taken on paper scored an average of ninety-one percent while random word tests taken on electronics scored an average of ninety-three percent. In conclusion, my hypothesis was not supported because on average, scores were actually higher on tests taken with electronics.
Kokomo

Amanda Wilson
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: Eliciting Plant Defensive Mechanisms via Mycorrhizal Stimulation
--The purpose is to understand the relationships that arise between corn plants and their mycorrhizal symbionts. The hypothesis is if corn plants are inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi, then they will exhibit immunity to pests due to elicitation of defensive mechanisms. Experiment 1 indicates that Trichoderma harzianum can combat corn smut infections. After 15 days, infected corn plants inoculated with T.harzianum did not exhibit stunted growth, an indication of corn smut infections. Experiment 2 suggests that T.harzianum, Glomus intraradices, and Ustilago maydis can elicit defense mechanisms in corn plants; Drosophila melanogaster populations decreased when exposed to root tissue and leaf tissue of corn plants inoculated with these fungi. Experiment 3 suggests that mycorrhizal fungi elicit phytochemicals in corn plants. Leaf tissue of corn plants inoculated with G.intraradices detered D.melanogaster, as did root tissue of T.harzianum corn plants. Experiment 4 indicates that U.maydis elicits a response in corn plants that can be detected by Armadillidae; they were deterred by leaf tissue from infected corn plants but attracted to root tissue from infected corn plants. This result suggests that corn smut infections elicit differing above-ground and below-ground responses in corn plants. In Experiment 5, corn plants defensively responded to corn smut infections. U.maydis cultures produced rings of inhibition when exposed to root tissue from infected corn plants. Ultimately, the hypothesis was supported. The mycorrhizal fungi T.harzianum and G.intraradices and the pathogenic fungus U.maydis elicit defense responses in corn plants.
Kokomo

Gabriel Mason
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: Ion-Exchange Technique for Characterization of Zeolite Catalysts for Upgrading Light Hydrocarbons to Chemicals and Fuels
--Oligomerization reactions are chemical reactions that couple together light alkene molecules into heavier hydrocarbons. These reactions are carried out on catalysts, materials that accelerate the reaction without being consumed in the process. Zeolites are a type of catalyst that is capable of catalyzing oligomerization. Aluminum atoms are present in the framework of zeolites. To make a charge neutral structure, a proton will charge compensate aluminum in the zeolite. This proton will act as a catalytically active Brønsted acid site. Two aluminum atoms that are located near each other in the framework of the zeolite are known as paired sites. Previous work has suggested that zeolites with higher numbers of paired sites have higher rates of hydrocarbon oligomerization. The goal of my research is to identify conditions for quantifying the number of paired sites in two zeolite frameworks (ZSM-11 and ZSM-22). Ion-exchange of divalent cobalt cations has previously been used as a method of quantifying paired sites in another zeolite framework (SSZ-13). Herein, cobalt ion exchanges were performed on ZSM-11 and ZSM-22 catalysts prepared in two ways: exchanged with NH4+ cations or exchanged with Na+ cations. These experiments were performed at two temperatures (298 K and 353 K) and over a wide range of cobalt concentrations (0.5-3.0 M Co(NO3)2). The amount of cobalt on each sample was quantified using atomic absorbance spectroscopy. Our results show that higher temperature (353 K) was required to exchange cobalt onto both ZSM-11 and ZSM-22. We also observed that both
Lafayette

Catherine Wright
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: Dual-acting Preptin to accelerate Bone fracture repair in diabetic fractures
--Bone fractures represent a significant disease burden, especially in patients with diabetes. Patients with diabetes experience six times as many fractures as normal patients. In type 1 diabetes, the loss of insulin is detrimental to osteoblasts and leads to a lower bone mineral density as well as non-enzymatic cross linkages of collagen caused by hyperglycemia causing brittleness in the bone. In type 2 diabetes, the bone mineral density isn’t reduced, but hyperglycemia has the same effect on the brittleness. Due to these facts, many diabetics experience delayed union or non-union fractures. Non-invasive drug therapies are not available for bone fractures, which represents a problem for this population. It has been observed that preptin, a fragment of insulin like growth factor-II, is both a bone anabolic and a hormone that improves cells’ insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that by delivering this hormone fragment, we could improve the healing of diabetic mice as compared to abalopardide (abalo), another bone anabolic that has performed well in normal fractures. This was tested as detailed the methods section below. We found that healing was delayed in the insulin sample, and that preptin reduced the brittleness of the bone, but did not strengthen the bone as significantly as abalo.
Lafayette

Sean Zak
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: Preventing Identity Theft
--Identity theft has been on the rise over the past decades, and this umbrella term includes the theft of information from RFID cards that can be found in one's wallet. What is the most practical way to protect oneself from the theft of information stored on their RFID cards? It has been claimed that homemade RFID blocking wallets, made with aluminum foil in the billfold are just as effective as wallets that are branded to be RFID blocking. Multiple different methods for blocking RFID signals were tested, including: a regular wallet, an RFID blocking branded wallet, and a regular wallet modified with aluminum foil in the bill fold, Through this it was discovered that RFID blocking branded wallet was just as effective as the homemade RFID blocking wallet. The largest difference between them was the factor of convenience in relation to the consumer. While homemade may be the cheaper option, store bought may be more practical and stylish, yet either one of them will still protect against the threat of identity theft.
Auburn

Karen Hunckler
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: Evaluation of Induced Gene Expression by Resveratrol and Cisplatin in Breast Cancer Cells
--In the United States alone, cancer is ranked as the second most common cause of cancer according MNT. This experiment is specifically directed toward breast cancer and the effect from homeopathic compounds on the gene expression. In my previous study, I researched the effect of certain compounds on MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth. Recent studies reported that MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with resveratrol (homeopathic compound of interest) displayed dramatic increases in expression for various genes specifically ERCC6L (Excision repair cross-complementing group 6), HCAR3 (Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 3), and SLC7A11 (Solute Carrier Family 7 Member 11). In this experiment, the pre-established expressions of these genes in resveratrol- treated breast cancer cells were compared to the newly tested expressions of the same genes in cisplatin-treated breast cancer cells. The results of the experiment indicate that HCAR3 and ERCC6 were up-regulated in cisplatin similar to the presviousprevious results of resveratrol. However, SLC7A11 had opposite results of resveratrol when induced with cisplatin. With cisplatin, after 48 hours, SLC7A11 was down-regulated unlike resveratrol which was up-regulated. these These specific genes of interest have similar amplifications with both cisplatin and resveratrol. In reality then, resveratrol can be used in place of cisplatin for breast cancer patients. This natural approach has less harmful side effects and proven health benefits for the entire body.
South Bend

Apisara Sunantra
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: Anti-Rape Belt: An Advanced Personal Security Device
--My initial purpose for designing the Anti-Rape Belt is to save the wearer from sexual assault. The belt can also be useful in other situations including bullying in schools and medical or other emergencies. The security components can be installed in a variety of belts for both males and females, young and old. Since assault continues to happen, people need protection. Using this belt could save someone. The primary function of the belt is to prevent anyone but the wearer from unbuckling it. This will be accomplished by a finger scan-activated buckle. My buckle design will look like a normal, fashionable buckle, but its function is totally different. The prong of my belt will not be adjustable manually but rather by the finger scan that activates the movement of the prong. The prong will not rest on the frame like a normal belt. Instead it will be driven into the frame securing it from moving. What makes this belt so special is that all of the mechanisms will be enclosed inside the belt buckle's chape. I will program a finger scanner located on the chape to activate a small motorized gear drive to move the prong through the belt material and into the frame. This gear drive will be battery powered and rechargeable. If the battery wears out, the prong will stay in its current position. The finger scanner will be hidden by the belt that overlaps it. An additional feature of this protective belt is that it will also have an SOS button integrated into its loop. The SOS button will be in the obvious place as a decoy for the attacker. The attacker will assume that the SOS button is likely the unlock button. When this button is pressed, it activates the GPS and alerts the emergency contacts that are programmed into it by an app that is connected to the button. The last feature of this belt is a loud alarm that goes off if the loop is tampered with. If the loop is pulled on forcefully, the alarm will sound and attract more attention to the scene of the assault and hopefully discourage the attacker. This alarm is deactivated by returning the end of the loop into the chape where it was pulled from. By synthesizing different technologies that already exist separately into one device, I will create a personal security device with many useful safety functions.
Mishawaka

Logan DeSchepper
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: Do Myotis Sodalis Echolocation Calls Vary in Call Structure Depending on the Roosts they Inhabit?
--Recently, the echolocation calls of bats have been proposed to have a communicative function in addition to spatial orientation. Due to the diverse roosting behaviors of bats in different colonies, we hypothesized that the structure of echolocation calls would vary depending on the roost that bats occupied. In this study, the echolocation calls of two separate roosts of Myotis sodalis located near the Indianapolis Airport were analyzed to see whether they possess unique, identifiable characteristics. The recordings were collected shortly before and during bat emergence in the late evening culminating in over 900 five second recordings, and a total of 208 echolocation calls were isolated for analysis; 105 originating from the 30s roost, and 103 from the 40s roost. 68 total bats were counted to have emerged; 53 from the 30s roost and 15 from the 40s roost. Four different call components were analyzed using the program Audacity: maximum frequency, minimum frequency, bandwidth, and call length. A two-tailed unpaired t-test revealed that the roosts had statistically significant differences in the means of all measured variables. The Levene’s test revealed that the 30s roost had higher variances than the 40s roost, and that the variances of call duration were similar between the two roosts. The results collected indicate that bats recorded from the different roosts do indeed have differently structured calls. This suggests that bats from each roost are using echolocation in a communicative context, and supports the pre-existing theory that the echolocation calls of bats carry individualistic vocal signatures.
Mishawaka

Joseph Henning
This is a Team Project-1190-1549486606
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: SAVIUTS: Sensory Aid for the Visually Impaired Using time-of-flight Sensors
New Carlisle

Lara Chuppe
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: The Effects of Amino Acid Supplementation on a Conditioned Response in Planarian Flatworms
--Experiments have identified that restriction of sulfur amino acids (SAA) can increase hydrogen sulfide production. Hydrogen sulfide has been shown to prevent neurodegeneration. Planarian flatworms are widely recognized for their ability to indicate neurotoxicity, so they were used in this investigation. I investigated the effects of SAA on planarian retention of a conditioned response to measure brain health. I had three groups: a control (spring water) and two experimental groups. One of the groups contained all the essential amino acids without SAA. A second experimental group contained all the essential amino acids with SAA methionine and cysteine. The experimental solutions were at a 0.1% concentration. Each group contained five planarian flatworms. The planaria were conditioned using Pavlovian conditioning, and their retention of the conditioned response was measured two weeks and three weeks after the conditioning period ends. I hypothesized that the planaria in the solutions containing SAA would retain the conditioned response significantly less than the control and the other experimental group. I further hypothesized that the experimental group without SAA would retain the conditioned response significantly more than the control. The data collected and analyzed through statistical tests showed that the planaria in both amino acid solutions at 0.100% concentration retained the conditioned response significantly less than the control group. There was no significant difference between the conditioned response retention in the two experimental groups. Further research is needed to determine the range of concentrations at which SAA and other amino acids negatively impact the ability of planaria to retain a conditioned response.
South Bend

Victor Karwacinski
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: Non-Thermal Plasma-Based Water Purification: Effects of Plasma Polarity in the Generation of Hydroxyl Radicals in a Plasma Electrolysis
-- Providing access to clean water has been named one of the Grand Challenges of the 21st century by the National Academy of Engineering; however, many current treatment methods result in harmful bacteria accumulation, aquifer depletion, and carcinogenic and mutagenic disinfection byproducts. By only using gas and an electrical energy source, direct-current plasmas (DCPs) in contact with water form a plasma-liquid reaction interface, where a host of reactive species are generated, such as hydroxyl radicals (•OH), solvated electrons (e-aq), and hydrogen radicals. These plasma species are generated without using conventional risks, making this system simpler and safer. In this study, argon plasma was used to degrade methylene blue (MB), a model organic compound, to study the generation of reactive species produced by the plasma. Chemical conversion of MB was compared between positive and negative polarities over time intervals reaching 20 minutes. MB solutions demonstrated a much higher chemical conversion with a positive polarity, suggesting greater •OH concentration in positive polarity systems. Because supporting research correlates acidic pH with smaller voltage drops, acidic solutions were prepared by adding hydrochloric acid to the MB solutions, while solutions with sodium chloride were used as a control. As expected, the acidic solutions demonstrated a lower chemical conversion, suggesting the generation of less •OH with a lower voltage drop. To test the oxidative role of •OH, Methanol, an •OH scavenger, was also added to MB solutions. Results demonstrated a significantly lower chemical conversion, suggesting •OH is responsible for most of the oxidation. By understanding DCP electrochemistry, environmental engineers can design and implement alternative plasma-based water purification systems.
Granger

Claire Heckel
This is a Team Project-14731-1539260679
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: Culturing Saliva to Analyze Bacteria in Human Versus Dog Mouths
Evanston

Aubrey Ruxer
This is a Team Project-14731-1539260697
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: Physiological Effects of Blue Light
Saint Meinrad

Summer Skelton
This is a Team Project-14731-1539260715
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: The Effectiveness of Antimicrobial Properties of Everyday Products
Gentryville

Demetri Massow
Grade-12 Project Number-
Title: Isolation and Characterization of an Environmentally Sourced Bacteriophage for Serratia marcescens.
--While antibiotics have been used for decades to treat bacterial infections, the use of bacteriophages in the medical setting provides a potential for new treatments in an era of growing antibiotic resistance. In this study, environment samples were gathered from three locations in order to isolate a phage capable of infecting and lysing Serratia marcescens, a bacteria known to cause nosocomial infections. The environmentally sourced samples were added to separate vials of LB broth containing S. marcescens and incubated for 4 days, in order to enrich for S. marcescens specific bacteriophage. The cultures were then centrifuged to pellet the bacteria and the supernatant containing potential bacteriophage was collected. This phage solution was serially diluted, added to an LB top agar containing S. marcescens, plated, and incubated for 24 hours at 37*C. Viral plagues were observed in the preparation from the lake on Stillwater Parkway (41°23'54.7"N 87°20'10.0"W), indicating the presence of bacteriophage. The isolated bacteriophage were specific for S. marcescens, as plague formation did not occur when added to cultures of S. aureus and E. coli. Current work is aimed at further characterizing this bacteriophage through DNA isolation and genome sequencing to determine whether the isolate is a novel phage. These results demonstrate the ability to isolate specific S. marcescens lytic phage from environmental sources, and could lead to the development of novel therapeutic treatments against S.marcescens.
Crown Point

Olivia Callahan
This is a Team Project-14933-1549657039
Grade-4 Project Number-
Title: Food Storage
--Conventional fruits use pesticides and fungicides to keep the insects and mold away and make them last longer. Organic produce on the other hand, is naturally grown, yet doesn’t last as long as conventional fruits. WHICH ONE IS BETTER FOR YOU? According to what we’ve heard about these fruits, organic is better for you because conventional fruits are sprayed with chemicals (pesticides and fungicides) to make them last longer. Our hypothesis was the conventional fruits would last longer in the glass storage container. We knew that conventional fruits are grown with different pesticides, they are not naturally made, but they are meant to last longer. We thought the glass storage container was the bet because it had a rubber seal, yet none of the others had the rubber seal sine the glass storage container had such a strong seal, it was air tight.
Zionsville

Minna Vens
Grade-4 Project Number-
Title: Spot It! Do People See Faster In Color or Black and White?
--The reason I chose to do this project is because my Grandma and I were playing the game Spot It, and she said it was the color that helped her find the match. I decided I wanted to test if this were true. I wanted to find out if people see faster in color or black and white. I also wanted to know how the eye sees color. Another reason is that I have glasses, and I wanted to know more about vision. Also, if I know if people see faster in color or black and white, I could apply that to people’s health. For example, if we knew that people saw better in color / black and white, we could apply that knowledge to road signs because the quicker you see the road sign, it is less likely you'll get into an accident. So I created this experiment to test if people see faster in color or black and white. The experiment uses Spot It game cards that are in color and black and white. I also use a stopwatch to time people. Each subject was tested with 3 sets of color cards and 3 sets of black and white cards. They had to spot the match in each set of cards as quickly as they could.
Zionsville

Anna Nevels
Grade-4 Project Number-
Title: Message in a Bottle
--The purpose of my experiment was to see if fourth graders liked bottled water or tap water best. I tested most of the fourth graders at my school. In a blind test, I asked them to drink a small amount of three different types of water. One was tap water from the school, one was a cheap bottled water, and one was a more expensive bottled water. 98 students participated. 10 preferred the more expensive bottled water. 12 preferred the less expensive bottled water. 58 preferred the tap water. 18 had no preference. In my hypothesis I said that I thought students would prefer the tap water which is free because that is what they are used to drinking at school. I was hoping to show that if students prefer this free water, we should be encouraged to use refillable bottles instead of bottled water which just makes more plastic trash. My hypothesis was right.
Centerville

Cale Schmitz
Grade-4 Project Number-
Title: Which Insulation Materials Resist Heat Flow the Best?
--Do you know how to keep your house warm? Insulation, but which kind of insulation resists heat flow the best. In this experiment, wood, fiberglass and foam board were tested to see which one resists heat flow the best. A three inch sample of each insulation was placed below a heat lamp. The sensor of a multimeter was located in a closed frame under the insulation. Every fifteen minutes the temperature was recorded for a hour. The experiment was repeated for all of the materials three times. The temperature change through the wood was approximately zero degrees fahrenheit. The average temperature change was about six degrees fahrenheit for foam board. The average temperature change for fiberglass was seven and three tenths degrees fahrenheit. In this experiment wood proved to insulate the best. It is possible that the results would be different if the experiment went on longer than one hour, due to the effects of mass on heat flow. Learning about which insulation resists heat flow the best can allow us to use less energy and keep our homes comfortable.
Economy

Branson Birkey
Grade-4 Project Number-
Title: Lasting Impressions
Fort Wayne

Mara Keyes
Grade-4 Project Number-
Title: Talk of the Lake
--Every summer I spend many weekends at the lake. My grandmother and a friend of mine live at different nearby lakes. I have listened to many conversations over the summers between my dad, my grandmother, and lake neighbors about who has the cleanest lake. I decided to do an experiment to scientifically prove between Bear Lake, Crooked Lake, and Skinner Lake, which is the cleanest? Based on my research, I think Crooked Lake will be the cleanest and Skinner Lake will be the dirtiest. Three water samples were collected from the three different lakes studied on two different days. All parts of the collection process were kept the same for each lake sample: date of collection, place of collection (boat ramp), depth of collection, collection containers, amount of water collected. The samples were then tested using a pH meter and a TDS (total dissolved solids) meter. The independent variables in my experiment were the different lake water samples, using purified drinking water as a control. The dependent variables were turbidity (TDS measurement) and acidity (pH measurement). My experiment results supported my hypothesis revealing Crooked Lake had the lowest amount of total dissolved solids and Skinner Lake had the highest amount of total dissolved solids. All lake samples were slightly basic and had very similar pH levels, which did not show anything significant to contribute to my findings. By doing this experiment, I learned about the importance of lake water quality in things that are not always easily seen.
Auburn

Stella Steury
Grade-4 Project Number-
Title: Crystal Cultivating
--The purpose of my project was to see where in my house crystals will grow the largest. I wondered if light or heat affected crystal growth. I thought the plant shelf would grow the larges crystals because it gets a good mix of both heat and light and because heat rises. I thought the basement would grow the smallest crystals because it is colder and the crystals will get no light. The procedures I followed were 1. Place your newspaper or cardboard in your crystal-growing area. 2. Boil a little more than 1 cup of water. While it is still very hot pour only 1 cup into your mixing bowl. 3. Pour a package of crystal-powder slowly into the hot water while stirring. Continue stirring for 1 minute until all dissolved. 4. Carefully pour the crystal-growing solution into the crystal-growing cup. If any powder doesn’t dissolve do not let it get in the cup. 5. Place your experiment in your crystal-growing area. 6. Carefully drop the seed rock into the cup flat-side down, making sure it is in the middle. 7. Leave the experiment to sit for 10 days. You will see your crystal form within 1 day, but for larger crystals let it sit. 8. Throughout the 10 days take the temperature two times a day. 9.Once your crystal has grown to remove the crystal carefully because the crystal will be delicate. My hypothesis was correct because the yellow crystal grew the best uniform structure and the blue crystal grew more random. I think the yellow crystal grew the best symmetrical structure because it had a good mix of heat and light. The pink crystal also did well because it was in direct sunlight and had heat. I think the blue crystal grew more random was because the temperatures varied more and also, it didn’t get a lot of light. The green crystal’s solution evaporated because it was too hot, so the crystal stopped growing, and a powdery residue formed on top of the crystal. After my experiment, I wondered if a crystal would do really good in that spot if I didn’t let it dry out. So I redid this location, being sure to add water when it was low. The extra water diluted the solution. I believe this made the solution less powerful, so the crystal was even more fragile. Adding the water also made an unstable environment, and created pressure on the crystal, making the crystal look flattened.
St. Joe

Tamsin Belle
Grade-4 Project Number-
Title: My fizzy experiment
--I did an experiment with different liquids and baking soda. I did it to find their pHand how much fizz they make. I thought vinegar would have the most fizz and lowest pH. Lemon juice has the lowest pH. and most fizz. Now you know lemon juice has more fizz so you can use it instead of vinegar to make things explode.
Bloomington

Nikki Beshkar
Grade-4 Project Number-
Title: The difference between boiling water and salted boiling water
Bloomington

William Liao
Grade-4 Project Number-
Title: Electricity Generation
--Our daily life depends on electricity. It is generated by big generators at power plants. Generators convert other types of energy into electricity. In this experiment, I test this hypothesis: the more energy is provided to a generator, the more electricity it produces. To do that, I use a hand hand crank generator to produce electricity. I change the speed of cranking and measure the output electric voltage. The more quickly I cranked it, the more electricity was produced. The results proved my hypothesis.
Bloomington

Aili Liu
This is a Team Project-14927-1539278731
Grade-4 Project Number-
Title: The Brain
--Our Hypothesis was that we thought all of the contestants would get Pomegranate Juice wrong, so that's why we picked it as a challenge. We also wanted something easy for them, so we picked Sprite. We didn;t think that someone would get it wrong. Our Hypothesis was mostly correct, although we did get some of the information incorrect. So, our whole project was about human senses and the human brain.
Bloomington

Toby Westphal
Grade-4 Project Number-
Title: Lava lamp
--When antacid is introduced to a solution of oil and water, bubbles like those from a lava lamp form. Antacids, like Alka-Seltzer, contain baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), citric acid and aspirin. The bicarbonate ions react with hydrogen ions from the citric acid to form carbon dioxide gas (and water). This is how the bubbles are made. I investigated whether the amount of antacid (sodium bicarbonate) used affected how long the 'lava' (bubbling) reaction lasted. My hypothesis was that each time I increased the amount of antacid by 0.25 tablets, the reaction would bubble twice as long. To conduct this experiment, I filled a plastic bottle with 3/4 full with oil and 1/4 full with water and added some red food coloring to make the reaction more visible. I broke the antacid tablets into quarters. The experiment was conducted four times: in the first bottle, I used 1/4 (0.25) of an antacid tablet, in the second bottle, I used 1/2 (0.5) of a tablet, in the third bottle, I used 3/4 (0.75) of the tablet and in the last bottle, I used a whole tablet. I timed how long the reaction was for each piece of tablet. The amount of antacid used lengthened the chemical reaction, however it did not double when the amount of antacid was doubled, but rather increased between 22% and 41% from the reaction with the quarter tablet.
Bloomington

Sarah Wijayanto
Grade-4 Project Number-
Title: The effect of environmental pollutants to the bean growth
Bloomington

Isabella Knowlton
Grade-4 Project Number-
Title: Wonderous Wings
Walkerton

Genevieve Purcell
Grade-4 Project Number-
Title: How does tension change the pitch of a violin string?
--I wanted to find out how the tension changes the pitch on a violin string. To study this, I used a G violin string, tuning app to measure frequency, and weights. Instead of tightening a tuning peg, I hung weights from the string. I used my violin bow to vibrate the string and measured the frequency while changing the weight hanging from the string. As more weight was hung from the string, we observed that the pitch will go higher. I concluded that as tension gets higher so does the pitch of the sting.
Evansville

Benjamin Alcantara
Grade-5 Project Number-
Title: Flying Under the Radar: Designing an Aluminum Fuselage Covering for an Aerodynamically Stable Stealth Aircraft That Evades Quantum Radar
--The Purpose of this experiment was to determine what type of aluminum fuselage covering reflects the lowest level of light in order to design an aerodynamically stable stealth aircraft that evades quantum radar. Hypothesis: Aluminum fuselage coverings which are smooth and shiny will reflect higher light levels than aluminum fuselage coverings which are matte and irregular as follows, highest to lowest lux: Smooth/Shiny > Smooth/Matte > Irregular/Shiny > Irregular/Matte. Null Hypothesis: There is no correlation between aluminum fuselage covering and reflected light meter readings. Procedure: 4 different aluminum fuselage coverings were applied to the same cylindrical fuselage shape. Each one was placed in a black box with a flashlight pointed toward it, and light meter readings were taken in lux. Results: Shiny/Smooth had the highest light meter reading followed by Matte/Smooth, then Shiny/Irregular, and finally Matte/Irregular, which had the lowest readings. Statistical analysis showed that changing from Shiny to Matte reduced the average lux by 25%. Changing from Smooth to Irregular cut the average lux in half. Overall, the greatest reduction was achieved by changing from Shiny/Smooth to Matte/Irregular with an overall lux reduction of 65%. Conclusion: The results support the hypothesis and prove that Matte/Irregular aluminum fuselage coverings effectively reduce reflected light as compared to Shiny/Smooth fuselage coverings.
Carmel

Arhita Mehta
Grade-5 Project Number-
Title: Improving Water Quality by Filtration Methods
--The purpose of this experiment was to determine how filtering water affects water quality. Hypothesis: If water is filtered, it will improve water quality, and the outcome will look like this, from best to worst: 1.) Reverse Osmosis (RO), 2.) Home-pitcher filtered, 3.) Bottled, 4.) Deionized, 5.) Tap. Null Hypothesis: Filtering water has no effect on water quality. Procedure: I tested 5 types of water (Bottled, RO, Tap, Deionized, and Home-pitcher filtered,) to test the water quality in each sample, using test strips. After repeating this procedure thrice, I measured the water quality by averaging the results, and compared the 4 filtered waters to tap water. Results: Filtering methods for RO, bottled and deionized water were effective in improving water quality. Tap and home-pitcher filtered water had improvements, but to a lesser extent. The final ranking placed in this order; 1.) RO, 2.) Deionized, 3.) Bottled, 4.) Home-pitcher filtered, 5.) Tap. RO, bottled, and tap waters remained in the same ranking order as before. Conclusion: The results partially support the hypothesis. The most effective method of filtration was RO, followed by deionized, bottled, and home-pitcher filtered, with tap water at the end. The only parts of the original ranking in the hypothesis, and the ranking in the results that stayed the same, were the waters in first, third, and fifth place; RO, bottled, and tap. The total hardness and pH decreased in all filtering methods compared to tap water. No filtering methods eliminated copper levels completely. However, RO reduced the levels of copper significantly.
Carmel

Avery Ziembo
Grade-5 Project Number-
Title: Blue Light Exposed
--Since so many people are exposed to blue light by viewing digital devices within two hours of bed, I wanted to know how blue light affected sleep quality. To do this, I chose two people under the age of 10, two people around their 40s, and two people in their 70s. I then used two Fitbit Charges and two Garmin Vivofit Jr. to record the amount of time each sleep participant took to reach deep/R.E.M. sleep, and their total night's deep/R.E.M. percent for thirty nights when viewing blue light, using a blue light filter, and when not being exposed to blue light. I calculated the average for each participant for each thirty day trial and charted the results. I found that my hypothesis was correct. On average, it took all six sleep participants the longest to go into deep/R.E.M. sleep and they had the lowest average percent deep/R.E.M sleep when viewing blue light within two hours of bed. The blue light filter did improve the overall sleep quality, but not as well as no blue light at all within two hours of bed. I started this project wondering if age was a factor. The 70 and over age group did have less deep/R.E.M. sleep than the other two age groups, but the overall results were consistent that no blue light before bed is best.
Fort Wayne

Addison Moughler
Grade-5 Project Number-
Title: Wild Imagination
--The propose of this experiment is to find which gender of fifth graders at Butler Elementary have the most creativity. I think that the girls will get a higher score on the test than the boys because they will list more details and adjectives on their ideas. I gave out a timed test to the boys and girls and had them look at the shapes given and list what they thought it was or could be. Then I graded each paper and gave points for fluency, flexibility, elaboration, and originality. After scoring all of the test areas, the boys had an average creativity score of 27.85 and the girls had 25.95. The boys won the overall average score categories of fluency (12.15 to 11.53), flexibility (10.48 to 9.37) and originality (2.70 to 1.95), but the girls won the overall average score in elaboration (3.11 to 2.52). In conclusion, my hypothesis was incorrect, because the boys scored more points in their combined total score. Part of my hypothesis was correct, because the girls won the elaboration category by listing more adjectives than the boys.
Butler

Marie Roach
Grade-5 Project Number-
Title: Can Biomass Clean Up Marsh Messes?
--I wanted to know if biomass could be used to effectively clean up oil spills in a marsh. I examined four different types of biomass: coconut pith, corn husks, rice hulls, buckwheat hulls, and an oil sorbent pad (that they use in real life in the marsh) to see which ones would absorb the most oil. My hypothesis is that the oil sorbent pad will absorb the most oil because it is what Louisiana uses in real life to clean up oil spills. First I created prototypes of soft booms using empty tea bags filled with these materials: coconut pith, corn husks, rice hulls, buckwheat hulls, and strips of oil sorbent pad. Create at least three teabag soft booms for each of the different types of materials. Make sure each soft boom weighs exactly 10 grams. Next, I put several drops of food coloring into a pitcher of water to die it blue and make it easy to tell it apart from the oil. Create an "oil spill" by filling a beaker with 100 ml of blue water and 50 ml of vegetable oil. But I wanted to be meticulous about exactly how much water and oil is put in the beaker. So, I used a syringe to be precise. Then, I Put each tea bag into a beaker filled with 100 ml of water and 50 ml of oil for one minute. I made some observations, then I measured how much oil and water was actually absorbed. Finally, I gathered my results. My results showed that the rice hulls absorbed the most oil, so I was wrong!
Granger

Alaina Allyn
Grade-5 Project Number-
Title: Is all water created equal?
Mount Vernon

Grace Geradot
Grade-5 Project Number-
Title: Do mealworms eat styrafoam?
Leo

Aydin Kurama
Grade-5 Project Number-
Title: Can I clean water by using coagulation?
--Coagulation can be used to clean water by making small dirt particles stick together and sink to the bottom. In this project, I investigated this process by using different measured amounts of alum as my coagulation material to clean water samples with different measured amounts of fine soil. I waited for different amounts of time for the coagulation, and measured the amount of dirt remaining in the water using a turbidity meter that I made with a photoresistor and circuit board. I used an LED bulb in the turbidity meter, and put each water sample between the light source and the photoresistor. I was able to calibrate the turbidity meter, and then determine the effectiveness of coagulation. I found out that coagulation can be used to clean water, and that alum is an effective coagulation material, but you need time for it to really work. I also found a calibration relationship between the amount of dirt in the water, and the resistance that I measured.
Granger

Lydia Schrock
Grade-5 Project Number-
Title: False Positive Blood Testing
--Testing different household items with H20, hydrogen peroxide, and tetramethylbenzidine to determine if they gave false positives of blood. No actual blood is used in this project.
LaPorte

ROHAN BHOSALE
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: The purpose of the experiment was to determine the effect of pre-treatment of mixtures of enzymes on fruit skin or peels.
--Abstract The purpose of the experiment was to determine the effect of pre-treatment of mixtures of enzymes on fruit skin or peels. Hypothesis: Pre-treatment of fruit peels with enzyme mixtures can help reduce the solid content (as measured by loss of weight of the peels) of the landfill. Null hypothesis: There is no difference in the weight between the pre-treated and the untreated group Procedure: The reactions between fruit peels and enzymes were carried out in a 2 ml microfuge tube for 2-6 hours. The samples were centrifuged and the liquid supernatant was decanted off. The weight of the residual solid was measured and noted down. The treated fruits peels were compared with untreated samples. After finding the best experimental conditions, I did a scale-up experiment in 50 ml centrifuge tube to validate the findings. Results: Ten different fruits peels when treated with enzyme such as lipase, pectinase, protease, amylase, and xylanase resulted into loss of weight by 28-34% in 4h in comparison to 6.8% for the untreated group. I then identified the optimum conditions and scaled up the treatment. Conclusion: The results supported my hypothesis that pre-treatment of fruit peels with the enzyme mixtures can help reduce the solid content of the landfill.
CARMEL

Laila AbuMahfouz
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: Natural Antacids VS Chemical Antacids
--Most people with acid reflux disease wonder which antacids would be more effective in neutralizing excessive stomach acid. Instead of going to the pantry and taking natural antacids, people always go to the store and purchase over-the-counter medications. So in my project, I tested chemical and natural antacids to see which ones would be more effective in reducing the excessive pain of stomach acid. For the natural antacids, I tested goat/skim/soy/whole milk, turmeric, ginger, and finally chamomile/green/black tea. For the chemical antacids, I tested Gaviscon, Alka-seltzer, Pepcid and Tums. First, i tested the ph of the HCl (with a concentration of 0.1 M (0.1 mole/ liter) then tested the pH of the separate antacid samples. Finally I mixed the two together and tested the pH value of the final mixture. For the chemical antacids, Gaviscon liquid and Alka-seltzer had the highest change in the pH of the HCl, followed by Tums, then Gaviscon tablet, and finally Pepcid. For the natural antacids, Goat milk has the highest change in pH, followed by skim, then soy, and finally whole milk. Other than the milks, turmeric had the highest, followed by green tea, followed by the chamomile tea, then by black tea, and finally ginger root. For the chemicals, even though Pepcid had the lowest effect on pH, it still had the capability to bring the pH to the ideal pH value (1.5-3). It brought it from 1.28 to 1.87. In conclusion, chemical antacids worked a little bit better than the natural antacids. I still recommend using natural antacids because you wouldn’t experience the side effects and it still had an effect on the pH of the stomach.
Fishers

Allison Duckworth
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: Eggs-perimenting With Sterols
--The American diet is rich in fatty foods that can clog arteries, reducing blood flow causing heart attacks like the one that my grandfather experienced. Humans consume an average of 250 eggs a year. If we can reduce the amount of LDL (low density lipoproteins) cholesterol in eggs then that will have a positive impact on the average American diet. Adults with a modest to high blood cholesterol need to eat 2,000mg(2 grams) of plant sterols each day to significantly lower their blood cholesterol. Phytosterols are structurally similar to the body’s cholesterol and when consumed they compete with cholesterol for absorption. As a result cholesterol absorption is blocked, and blood cholesterol levels are reduce. In my experiment I am testing to see if cracked corn when given to 5 chickens over a period of six weeks produce eggs with a greater amount of cholesterol in the egg yolk, compared to the chickens fed a sunflower based feed and my control (because sunflowers contain higher amounts of phytosterol compounds that have been shown to lower cholesterol levels in humans.)
Swayzee

Braden Moore
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: From Tee to "Green": Which Tee Will Biodegrade the Quickest?
--The purpose of my experiment was to test four different starches in one cup of water to create the best biodegradable golf tee. If I were to take six different golf tees and place them in different jars with 1 cup of water each, I thought that the corn starch would biodegrade the quickest. I thought that it would biodegrade the quickest because the corn starch was very sticky when I mixed it with the glycerin. Plus, it was not easily formed. Corn starch is used to make corn syrup and many different sugars. For the procedure, I mixed 1 tablespoon of starch, 1 teaspoon of glycerin, 1 teaspoon of apple cider vinegar, and 4 tablespoons of water together in a pan and cooked it on low on the stove top for 3-5 minutes while stirring continuously. Once it began to look like a gel or toothpaste, I took it off the burner, and let it cool. After it was cool enough to touch, I spooned it onto a paper plate and used the same starch to place on my fingers so that it wasn’t sticking to me when I formed two golf tees with my hands. I repeated this process for all four different types of starches (tapioca, arrowroot, potato, and corn). In order to speed up the drying process, I placed the tees on a cookie sheet in the oven and baked them for 90 minutes, checking on them every 15 minutes at 200 degrees. I then let them continue to dry out at room temperature (68-72 degrees) for another 24 hours until they finally hardened. Then I placed them in four different containers with one cup of water each and also used two more containers to place the wood and nonbiodegradable plastic golf tees in one cup of water each. I then observed the tees for 20 days. In conclusion, my hypothesis was wrong. Through further research, I actually found out that natural starches contain amylose and amylopectin, and that the percentages of each part is different for each plant. Plants with higher amounts of amylose are less likely to break down in water (insoluble) compared to those with higher percentages of amylopectin (soluble). Research showed that tapioca and arrowroot have higher percentages of amylopectin which is why my hypothesis of the corn starch biodegrading more quickly was proven wrong and the arrowroot and tapioca starches were the quickest.
Williamsburg

Joshua Wilson
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: Final Destination
--My hypothesis was correct. I predicted thqat the plane with the most folds added to each wing would wind up flying the farthest. Testing showed that the Blue Plane was like throwing a dart. Results show and support my research by showing that when using the same amount of thrust each time, the plane with the less amount of surface area and drag ultimately traveled the farthest. If I was to do this experiment again I might add weight to some of the planes to affect its overall weight, lift and drag. This would add to the data I already gathered and give me a better idea on how they travel.
Springport

William Brown
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: Rusty Reactions
--The purpose of this project is to test how corrosive agents in a solution can cause rust on metals. The problem is, what makes metal, in this case steel wool, rust more quickly. I will test chemicals with different pH levels to see which ones have a greater amount of heat released indicating a rusting chemical reaction. My hypothesis is that the lemon juice, with a pH level of 2.2, will create the most heat from the reaction. It will corrode or rust metal the fastest. In order to test this, same size pieces of steel wool will be soaked in solutions of different pH levels. Then, a digital thermometer in a controlled setting will record the heat released from the exothermic reaction of the acid and the steel wool. I found that the change in temperature over time was higher and rose more quickly with the lemon juice as compared with water, and orange juice. Thus, my conclusion is that the rise in temperature rates of the reaction between more acidic liquids indicated a stronger exothermic reaction. Based on these results, I can conclude that pH does affect the rate which heat is released and the overall rate of corrosion. This can be important when we look at how acid rain has an impact on our environment and buildings.
Greentown

Olivia Gillbertie
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: BioWarfare
--My abstract is about working with e coli and phages and the process that is incurred. I worked at IUK biology department under the supervision of my aunt.
Greentown

AJ Shilling
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: Does Music Affect Plant Growth
--I did this project because I love music and how music is exciting and I thought that it might make plants feel the same way. I got 3 soundproof boxes, 3 plant lights, and 2 echo dots. I lined the soundproof boxes up in a row and put the echo dots inside the boxes labeled classical, and jazz. I then put 3 starter pots inside each box and filled them up about 3/4 the way full with soil. On the first day, I watered the plants 20 ml and every other day I watered them 10 ml. The music would turn off every 4 hours so I would have to turn the music on 3 times a day. Every day I would go to the boxes water the plants 10 ml, record how tall the plants are in inches, take pictures of the plants and turn the music back on. Repeat those steps for 4 weeks.
Hagerstown

MaKiaya Roe
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: Which household cleaner prohibits the most bacteria growth?
--I was happy with the outcome and results of my experiment. On the 2nd day when I went into the lab to see the bacteria, I was shocked to see how much bacteria had grown. As I expected, my control tested the worst. It had the most colonies of bacteria with 42, the largest colony at 8.5cm and covered half of the petri dish. All of the spots stayed white, which I did not expect especially after some of the cleaners changed colors. Much to my surprise, I think that the bleach water was the worst of all of the cleaners. I expected it to do better because the bottle says that it kills 99.9% of household germs and a lot of people use it. It scored 2nd in the number of bacteria colonies with 11. Even though it didn’t have as many colonies, the colonies grew a lot reaching 3cm. They even changed several different colors indicating different types of bacteria. It chad the most color change with 4 different colors. Next on the list of cleaners was Mrs. Meyers. Mrs. Meyers scored best in the number of colonies grown with only 10. Almost every colony that was present grew in size. The largest bacteria grew to 2.5 cm. It also changed colors indicating more than one type of bacteria was present. It had 2 different colors. The runner-up in cleaners was Scrubbing Bubbles. I expected it to get last place before I started my project. It had the most bacteria colonies out of the four cleaners with 15, but it did not grow any additional colonies throughout the project. It had 15 on day 2 and on day 8. The colonies did not grow a lot starting at 5mm and ending at 9mm. All of them remained white in color indicating that there was only 1 type of bacteria present. Based off of the results I think that the Thieves Cleaner from Young Living was the best cleaner. Although it did rank in 3rd place on number of colonies grown with 14, not very many of the colonies grew very much. The largest colony was only 7mm which was the smallest of all. It also only grew 4mm from day 2 to day 8. It took up the least amount of surface area in the petri dish as well. After comparing all of my data, I believe my hypothesis is correct that Thieves Cleaner is the best at prohibiting bacteria growth. It is an all-natural cleaner and I found it to be more effective than cleaners that can bought in stores or mixing bleach water.
Kokomo

Klarissa Castaneda
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: Face Off
--Klarissa Castaneda Sixth grade Frankfort Middle School Project Category: Behavioral and Social Sciences Abstract Face Off The purpose of my project is to see when it comes to recognizing facial features, will people distinguish their own gender’s eyes better than distinguishing the eyes of the opposite gender. Before I started my project, I thought people will be able to recognize and distinguish the eyes of their own gender faster and with greater accuracy than the opposite gender. I predict this because people are most familiar with their own faces, so the participant has an advantage when it comes to facial recognition of their own gender. The first step in this experiment is to collect ten different photos of people. Five pictures are female, where the other five are male. The photos I have chosen have not been randomly selected. I chose photos of people who have fairly similar features and are positioned alike in a portrait-style picture. All people selected have a similar position of the way they are looking at the camera. After I selected the ten individual pictures, I edited out the eyes out using photo editing software. For this experiment to work, the eyes that I cut out would need to have the same rectangular shape. When I felt like the full set was completed, I placed the edited pictures to where there were five columns, and each column had a picture on top and pair of eyes on the bottom. I made sure that the eyes are not under the face it matches with. I also made sure that when I was arranging the eyes, the answer key spots for the matches were not the same on both papers (the male set and the female set). Then on the very top of the paper, I put a female or male option for each student to circle his/her gender before beginning to match the eyes with the edited faces. At the bottom of the paper, there is a place to record the finish time it takes the person to connect the faces to the correct pairs of eyes. For testing, when I came into a classroom, I asked for the teacher to put a stopwatch on the screen. When the students were ready, I explained what they were to do on the test paper. Once a student was done, he/she would record the finish time from the screen and then raise the paper up so I could verify the recorded time and collect the test. When I received each finished paper, I would double-check that the student had circled the gender and accurately recorded the finish time. I repeated this process with each group. In conclusion, my hypothesis was wrong. The gender of a person doesn’t matter when it comes to recognizing eyes and matches them to the correct faces. It doesn’t matter if you are matching features of your own gender or the opposite gender. However, I did find that students performed better on this task when that matching involved female faces (compared to male faces). I believe the reason behind this outcome is due to the students’ personal lives. Most students have been around more female faces than male faces over the course of their lives, which creates more familiarity. That could be teachers from their past or even their own mothers, who spend a lot of time interacting with them as babies, when the brain is rapidly developing.
Frankfort

Elaina Gorringe
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: Boiling Soda
--Elaina Gorringe Grade 6 Sunnyside Intermediate School Project Category: Energy Chemical Abstract Boiling Soda Purpose The purpose of my experiment is that if soda companies need to ship their drinks to warmer climates they know what temperature they need to keep their trucks. It can also help for when cooking experts/people are cooking with soda and they don’t need to boil it they know when to stop boiling/cooking it. Procedures 1. Gather materials 2. Pour the regular Coca-Cola into a small pot 3. Set stove top to medium 4. Start your stopwatch 5. Watch the coke closely until it boils 6. When the coke starts to boil stop the stop watch 7. Take pot off of the stove 8. Turn stove off 9. Dump the Coca-Cola in the sink 10. Let the pot cool down 11. Repeat the 10 steps above with the other two types of Coca-Cola and two additional trials Data The averages (in minutes) of all the types of Coca-Cola were: • Coca-Cola - 1.6 • Diet Coke - 1.1 • Caffeine Free Diet Coke – 1.7 Conclusion I have an answer to my problem question: Do different types of Coca-Cola have different times of boiling? Yes, they do have different times of boiling. The regular Coke took an average of 1.6 minutes to boil, the Diet Coke took an average of 1.1 minutes to boil, and the Caffeine Free Diet Coke had an average of 1.7 minutes to boil. I changed in my procedures was I didn’t use the candy thermometer. Problems I ran into while doing this experiment was that the pot was cooled down more sometimes then others. If I were to do this experiment again I would change the types of Coke I would use. The results of this experiment were that if a cooking expert needed to use my experiment as a reference so then they can make sure that they don’t boil the Cola when they weren’t supposed to.
Lafayette

Villem Jaagosild
This is a Team Project-14467-1551121606
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: Ready, Set, grow!
--Previous studies have proven that plants usually grow fastest in slightly acidic soil. If mung beans are sprouted in between wet paper towels that were soaked in 6.5 pH liquid, then more beans will sprout than in other pH-level liquids, because since seeds germinate better in slightly acidic soil, we can infer that the mung beans will germinate at a better rate if watered by slightly acidic liquid. First off, we had 4 types of pH-level liquids that we were going to use to sprout our mung beans: 5.5 pH liquid, 6.5 pH liquid, 7.0 pH liquid, and 7.5 pH liquid. We created solutions that we were going to moisten the towels with (with their assigned pH-level liquid). After that, we put the mung beans in between the moist towels (that were moistened by their assigned pH-levels), which were put on the plates. We then waited 24, 48, and 72 hours and see how many out of 16 beans germinated. We repeated this two more times to confirm our 1st trial. After that, we made our data tables and we analyzed them. Finally, after tons of research, we concluded that: … if you were going to grow it long, the 6.5-level liquid will be the most efficient, but… … if you were going to just see it sprout, then the 7.5-level liquid will be the fastest. In conclusion, our hypothesis was supported.
West Lafayette

Nabil Snighdho
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: Can proteins be used to treat cancer?
--My experiment was to see if cancerous and healthy cells have different amounts of proteins in them. I thought of this project because people around the world are dying because of cancerous cells, and proteins are what performs all of the functions inside of the cells, so I thought of if there would be different proteins inside the cell. My hypothesis was that there would be different types of proteins inside the cells, because cancerous cells are known to reproduce too much, which is a function of a cell, and functions in a cell are controlled by proteins. My procedure (in a broad description) was 1. Extract proteins into pellets inside cell sample 2. Extract sample and insert into gel and perform gel electrophoresis 3. Perform In Gel Protein Digestion. 4. Extract peptides (proteins) from gel 5. Identify proteins in Mass Spectrometer Through my data, I was able to see that there were more stress response proteins inside of the cancer cells, and that there were less structure related cells inside of the cancer cells. After checking the data, I was able to conclude that my hypothesis was supported. Future topics may be seeing if that I can find a way to create more protein expression of the missing cells inside the cancerous cells, which might take a long time to find a way to do this.
West Lafayette

Devesh Vamadevan
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: Glow Light How Bright
--This experiment sought to answer the question "Does Temperature Affect the Brightness of Glow Sticks?" It was hypothesized that if the water temperature surrounding the glow stick is increased (hot water) then the brightness of the glow stick will increase, and if the water temperature surrounding the glow stick is decreased (ice cold water) the brightness of the glow stick will decrease (dimmer). I had 3 glasses of water with different temperatures: cold at 20 degrees F, room temperature at 70 degrees F, and hot at 120 degrees F. In all 10 trials, the glow stick in the hot water glass had the most intensity (brightness) and the glow sick in the cold water had the least amount of intensity (dimness).
Fort Wayne

Robert Warren
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: Rust is a Must
--My purpose is to determine which metal is the most corrosion resistant. My hypothesis was that galvanized steel would be the most corrosion resistant. I first researched places to buy metal. I then purchased 9 types of metal, cut to size. I also deburred the edges of the metal. I inscribed the metal and its sample number on the metal or coupon. I then cleaned the metal to remove contaminations. I made a salt fog chamber out of a plastic storage container, ultrasonic mister, fiberglass driveway marker rods, temperature controller, and heating pad. I weighed my metals, put a zip-tie on them, and photographed them. I started the salt fog test. I photographed for a number of days to see how it was corroding. I took them out and weighed them. I at last had people judge the metals from a rating of 1 - 9, most corroded to least corroded. My hypothesis was wrong. Galvanized steel was the 4th most corroded. Stainless steel was the least corroded of my samples. Stainless steel hardly corrodes because it has a protective layer which forms from the chromium in stainless steel.
Kendallville

Nora Borneman
This is a Team Project-14927-1539277997
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: The effect of soil contamination on bean growth
--Our project is on how bean seed growth reacts to lead being placed in their growth space. Our hypothesis is that the beans in the experimental group will absorb the lead and grow to be smaller and/or more discolored than the beans in the control group.
Bloomingon

Joe Sargent
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: What would happen if a black hole the size of a dime suddenly appeared?
--A black hole is an object that is left when a star dies. I tried many different methods to prove that if a black hole the size of a dime entered earth's atmosphere, it would start to suck out all of earth's atmosphere causing your lungs to expand and burst. My successful method was being able to use a balloon representing your lungs with a flask and vacuum representing the black hole and the emptiness. The balloon expanded into the flask filling the empty space. When pressure is taken away from your body, your body wants to equalize with the pressure that is now around it. When that pressure becomes zero, that would mean that your body would continue to expand until it could expand no more. Which would cause your insides to burs
Bloomington

Marcus Westphal
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: Effect of candle waxes on stirling engine rotations per minute
--For this experiment, I built my own Stirling Engine. The housing is made out of aluminum soda cans. I also used a piece of PVC pipe, paperclips, a balloon and a CD, which is rotated by the energy created through heat. Candles are needed to power the Stirling Engine, so I investigated what type of candles generated the most heat and therefore produced the most rotations per minute. I made four types of candles, each with a 2 cm long wick. One candle was made of yellow beeswax, one was the white wax from a tea candle, one was made from the red wax packaging used to protect gouda cheese and the fourth was made from olive oil. I found that the candles made out of red wax and olive oil only produced enough heat for the first two tests and after that, they did not generate enough heat to turn the CD. Both the yellow beeswax candle and the white tea light worked well, but the whit tea light candle produced the most heat and rotations per minute (286.2).
Bloomington

Sandra Laymon
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: Moldy Cheese
--I did this project because I have always wondered which cheese would mold first. Another reason is, I would be eating cheese and think I wonder if I left it out it would grow mold on them. Then, I have always had a curiosity of how come this and that. I have always had questions. First, I cut the different kinds of cheeses so they weighed .5 oz. Then, I put the samples in containers. Third, I marked what they were and where they went. After that, I put them in the dark, outside, and in the refrigerator and left them. At the end of the second week I took all my information and recorded it all. The Colby Jack outside molded the fastest. The Colby Jack in the dark molded second and the Gouda didn't do anything besides weigh less by .1 oz.
Deputy

David Walling
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: March Madness
Evansville

Sara Zachariah
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: How do Different Tsunami Defenses Effect Over-topping?
--Primary purpose of this project was to identify how different tsunami defenses effect over topping. Two-gallon water was poured into a 91 cm by 15 cm rectangular wave tank with a two cm spill area at one end. Six different defense and its combinations were used to measure the overtopping. Five waves were generated at an interval of two seconds between the waves, and overspill of each defense was measured. An average of fifteen repetitions on each defense were recorded. The defense included, shallow beach, deep beach, vertical wall, curved wall, rock armor and off shore break wall. Off shore break wall did the best with only an average of 11.47 ml going into the spill area. Rock armor was the second best defense with an average of 24.67 ml of spill over. The worst defense was the shallow beach with an average spillover of 223.33 ml.
Terre Haute

Isaiah Racey
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: "It's All In Your Head!"
--My parents, the doctors I interviewed and the articles I read said that a person can only focus on one thing at a time and pain can be ignored if a person is doing something that is more interesting, like playing XBOX. My experiment showed more than a 300% increase in pain tolerance when a person is distracted.
Terre Haute

Rowyn Holder
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: Viscosity and Non-Newtonian Fluids
--Introduction My motivation for this project came from my fascination with Oobleck and kinetic sand. Oobleck is a non-Newtonian fluid which means the viscosity of the fluid is not constant and depends on the amount of pressure or force acting upon it. While a Newtonian fluid is the opposite. Problem Statement I wanted to know if I could determine the viscosity of a non-Newtonian fluid using a drop ball viscometer. This device measures terminal velocity of a sphere falling through a fluid. We can use our data and Stokes’ Formula to get the viscosity provided the fluid has laminar flows. Procedure After commissioning the viscometer by timing how long it took balls of masses 0.12, 0.20 and 0.36 g to fall one meter through canola oil. We filled the viscometer with diluted hair gel and timed how long it took all three balls to fall one meter through the hair gel. We will know our experiment is successful if: 1.The 0.12 g ball falls slower in comparison to the same mass in oil. 2.The 0.36 g ball falls faster in comparison to the same mass in oil. Results The 0.12 g balls fell about 195.08 times slower in hair gel than in oil. And the 0.36 g balls fell about 2.54 times faster in hair gel than in oil. Conclusions A drop ball viscometer can be used to determine if a fluid is non-Newtonian and this viscometer can be used to approximate the viscosity of a non-Newtonian fluid.
Terre Haute

Clara Moran
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: LENS COMBINATIONS
--I thought it would be interesting to learn about glasses and how they work. I have thought about becoming an optician when I get older. An optician is someone that helps people find the right glasses for people and fill orders for eyeglass prescriptions. Glasses have different prescription values. The prescription value depends on the type of lens. The lens can be concave or convex. A concave lens bends the light outward, away from the center of the lens. A convex lens bends the light inward, towards the center of the lens. A prescription value called a diopter indicates the lens strength and how much the light bends. Diopters are from 1.00 to 3.25. They can be positive (+) or negative (-). A positive (+) diopter is used for a convex lens and a negative (-) diopter is used for a concave lens. People that can’t focus near objects (like when reading) need positive (+) diopter eyeglasses. These would range from +1.00 to +3.25. My experiment tests combinations of convex lenses (stacked, separated, etc.) to determine the overall diopter strength of the combinations.
Fort Wayne

Dessie Mikels-Carrasco
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: Soap without lye? NOAH way!
--Saponification is the chemical process for making soap. The process involves the use of salt and fat to make a molecule that is polar, so on one end it attracts oils and on the other, it grabs the water. For this project, I will be testing how saturation levels in the fat of the oil affect the soap that fat makes. To do this I will make soap using lye and coconut oil, canola oil, or beef tallow. These oils have varying levels of saturated and unsaturated fats. I hypothesize that the oil with the least saturated fat (canola oil) will create a softer and less dense soap and will feel oily, while the oil with the most saturated fat (coconut oil) will be hardest, densest, and least oily to the touch. I found that while the canola oil made the oiliest soap, as I hypothesized, it also made the densest soap, which I had expected to be the coconut oil soap. My hypotheses did not account for the type of unsaturated fats - such as mono and polyunsaturated fats, and canola oil is the highest in polyunsaturated fats of the oils I tested.
South Bend

AANGEE MEHTA
Grade-6 Project Number-
Title: SHINE & GROW
--Purpose: I wanted to find out whether Sunlight, 6500k led light, or 3000k led light would make an indoor plant photosynthesize the fastest, and I thought the 6500k led light would. Procedure: I got baking soda, a gram scale, water, dish soap, a spoon, a straw, spinach leaves, 10-ml syringe without a needle, a stopwatch, paper and a pencil to record, 1 6500k LED bulb (white), 1 3000k LED bulb (yellow), a 160-ml plastic beaker, a desk lamp, sunlight, and something to keep 200-ml of water in. I measured out .5 grams of baking soda, and mixed it with 200-ml of water, and I put one drop of liquid soap in it. I poured 150-ml of the mixture into the beaker. I cut out ten circles from the leaves, took out the plunger, and put them in the barrel of the syringe. Then, I replaced the plunger and drew 6.5-ml of the mixture into the syringe, took the air out, and put my thumb on the tip. I drew back the plunger and released, and did this over and over until the leaf disks sank down to the bottom. I screwed in a light bulb into the desk lamp, or I found a sunny spot, depends. I took out the plunger and put all of the disks into the beaker, turned on the light, started the timer, and recorded when 1 disc, 50%, and 100% of the leaf disks float up. Analysis of Data: I observed that in Sunlight, the average for a hundred percent was 11 minutes and 2 seconds, for he 6500k LED light it was 13 minutes and 27 seconds, and for the 3000k LED light it was 14 minutes and 56 seconds. Conclusion: I found out that my hypothesis was incorrect. Sunlight had the fastest photosynthesis time. Knowing this will help indoor plants flourish.
BRISTOL

Christopher Carlson
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Solid-State Drive vs. Hard Disc Drive
--The purpose of this experiment was to test which storage device is more efficient and effectively better for the average consumer. Two different storage devices were tested. The HDD was had 500gb of storage and the SSD had 240gb of storage. The internet connection would be through a cat 6 Ethernet cable and the operating system would be stored on the SSD, except for when the boot-up time for the HDD was recorded. The download times were recorded using a virtual stopwatch, the Fps was recorded with an in application heads up display, and the boot-up was recorded with a virtual stopwatch. Then the data was organized it into three graphs. Once the information has been it could be concluded that there was a recurring pattern with the information. The results of this experiment show that an SSD reaches higher Fps in application 1 and application 2, an SSD has lower boot-up times for the operating system, and the SSD has lower download times. These factors show that an SSD is more efficient than an HDD and effectively better for the average consumer.
St. John

Dominic Forrester
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Evaluation of the Efficacy of Antimicrobial Gloves against Bacteria
--BACKGROUND: Germs and bacteria are everywhere. The hands of people are one of the most common ways that pathogens spread to other people or surfaces. The use of antimicrobial gloves could reduce the transfer of bacterial contamination between surfaces especially in the healthcare and food industries. AIM: Determine the activity of antimicrobial coated gloves against E.coli bacteria METHODS: Treated and untreated gloves were challenged with ~108 colony-forming-units (cfu) of E. Coli bacteria. After 1 min of contact time the glove was touched to a LB agar plate. Each product was tested three times and the plates were incubated overnight at 37 degrees C, and bacterial growth was measured. RESULTS: Antimicrobial product 1, 2 and 3 coated gloves, as well as the natural silver coated gloves, reduced the amount of bacteria that grew as compared to the untreated gloves. Antimicrobial product 2 and the silver coated gloves performed the best with statistically significant improvement over the untreated gloves. CONCLUSIONS: Gloves coated with commercial or natural antimicrobial products may be useful in preventing the spread of bacteria to other people or surfaces.
Dyer

Julia Simantirakis
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Wow! You're Amazing!
--The purpose of this experiment is to figure out if giving someone a compliment improves someone's performance on a test after taking it once already. 20 participants were gathered for this experiment. The participants took a typing test and first set of data was collected which included the participants' total errors. Then the participants randomly received a compliment, a negative comment, or no comment. After that, the participants took the typing test for the second time. Second set of data is recorded which included the participants' total errors. Finally, the results were recorded and organized into graphs. The graphs showed various amounts of errors made by the participants after the first and second tests. The results showed that the participants who received a negative comment improved more on the second test than those who received a compliment and no comment.
St. John

Abigail Kemper
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Solar Energy
--The purpose of this experiment was to make a moveable solar panel tracker that could adjust to the seasonal angles and daily angles based on the time of the day. If the solar panel is moved during the course of the day, starts at 35 degrees East at the beginning of the day, then moves to the 0 degree position at 10:00 a.m., then moves to 35 degrees West at 2:00 p.m., then it will collect more energy, because it will receive more direct sunlight and it will collect more photons, which will generate more energy. If the solar panel is moving during the course of the day, then there will be no effect on how much energy is collected, because it not receive more direct sunlight and it will not collect more photons. The solar panel tracker was placed in the set/control position (no changes in the hourly angle where made during the course of the day) for five days, and then the daily movement position (starts at 35 degrees East at the beginning of the day, then moves to the 0 degree position at 10:00 a.m., then moves to 35 degrees West at 2:00 p.m.) for five additional days. The amount of energy and direct sunlight was tracked every hour. After analyzing the data, the average number of hours needed to fully charge in the set/control position was 7.8 and in movement 7 hours. The average exposure for the set/control position was 63.5% and in movement it was 81%. It should be noted that cloud cover and weather conditions does affect the exposure and hours needed to fully charge. In conclusion, when the solar panel was moving it took less time to charge and the average exposure to direct sunlight increased. This is equal to charging on average 48 minutes faster, and it had 17.5% more exposure on average. The results did support my hypothesis in the fact that the solar panel charged quicker and had an increased exposure then the panel staying in the set/control position
Fishers

Libby Pierce
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Cellular Crisis
--Libby Pierce Grade 7 Frankfort Middle School Project Category: Biomedical and Health ABSTRACT Cellular Crisis The purpose of my project was to see if the radiation emitted from a mobile device affects the regeneration process of planaria. I thought the radiation from the iPad would affect them because cellular devices emit radiofrequency radiation. This radiation can be absorbed by the planaria as it is forming new cells, causing regeneration issues and potentially even cancer. Initially, the first step was to get planaria with eye dropper and place in Petri dish. Then, use a scalpel to cut planaria in half. Add spring water to plastic containers and label containers “heads” and “tails” so that there is one pair for each test set. Place planaria in the containers according to the section of the planaria Place an iPad over one set of the containers. This is the Test set. The iPad should be placed on the setting where it does not every shut down or go dark. Make sure the iPad is plugged in to an outlet. Leave the iPad on the planaria for 2 hours continuously. Place the other set of containers in a place where the planaria will not be disturbed. This is the Control set. Check planaria everyday under microscope to assess the regeneration. Record any development changes that have happened. Continue checking the planaria until all specimens are either dead or done regenerating. Due to the high rate of fatalities in the test set under 24 hour exposure to the iPad, a secondary set of tests was conducted with the test set being exposed to only 8 hours of the iPad during each day (with the iPad off for the other 16 hours in the day). My hypothesis was correct because the radiation did indeed negatively affect the planaria. Nearly all of the planaria died when they were exposed to the radiation effects of the iPad continuously. When I reduced the exposure to only 8 hours daily, there were still some fatalities. In both cases, the exposure to the iPad also delayed regeneration, and the longer the exposure, the more the delay. It’s possible that the negative effects seen in planaria regeneration could also occur in humans by causing cellular mutations, which could eventually lead to cancer. This possibility is being studied by other scientists today.
Frankfort

Jordan Mark
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Rigorous Robots
--Jordan Mark Grade 7 Tecumseh Junior High School Project Category: Robotics and Intelligent Machines Abstract Rigorous Robots Purpose The purpose of this project is to see how accurate robots are. Analysis To start off with the EV3 Robot, when I ran the programs occasionally the robot turned into the wall of the table I was using, I think this was due to my hand pressing the button and my hand staying on the robot too long. The Smart Machine app had trouble starting the programs and the app froze a lot. Human error could have occurred when pressing the stopwatch because your hand can’t press the stop button immediately as the robot stops. Procedures 1. Obtain a programmable robot. 2. Make a 24' x 24' grid with 1' x 1' squares. 3. Make multiple (I did 4 and ran them 5 times each) measurable programs for the robot. 4. Have the robot run one of the programs 5. Measure according to the program 6. Run each program 5 times 7. Collect and record data 7. Repeat steps 4-7 for the rest of the programs Conclusion In the end my data did support my hypothesis and both my robots were not completely accurate. For the EV3 Robot, program 2 was the most off, the most degrees off was 27°. The Smart Machine was also not completely accurate but human error occurred while performing the experiment, I had a stopwatch and pressed start when the programs started, and stop when the robot stopped, I might not have pressed the stop button perfectly. Programs 1 & 4 were the most off. The most seconds off was .6 seconds.
Lafayette

Kirtan Patel
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Best Disinfectant!!!
--My science fair project was on pathogens also known as bacteria and on different household chemicals. The reason I really wanted to do this project is, because bacteria and germs are everywhere around us and it is hard to get rid of them. So I want to see which chemical would be the most efficient at killing bacteria. This project taught me a lot about bacteria and different chemicals. So while doing research many sites stated that antibacterial soap would not kill bacteria as well as rubbing alcohol but that was proven wrong in my tests. To test this I first cultured bacteria and then I created a suspension and spread it on a foam dish. Then, clean each area with the different chemical and then take a sample and plate it in a petri dish. I let the bacteria grow for 3 days and took results everyday. For the bacteria to grow the I put a small heater in the room. So the purpose of my project was to see which chemical would kill bacteria the best. My hypothesis was that if I were to expose bacteria to different chemical than bleach would kill bacteria the best because it starts dissolving the cell membrane and then traveling inward. Well after doing my test my hypothesis was proven correct because bleach had zero pinpoint colonies by the end of the three days, but the weird thing was antibacterial soap and rubbing alcohol had almost no pinpoint colonies as well.
WEST LAFAYETTE

Albert Rajwa
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: A phone camera versus a spectrometer: the duel between color sensors.
--Spectrophotometry is a technique for quantitative analysis of light absorbed by or reflected from materials, and it is used in a wide range of fields, from molecular biology to physics. A spectrophotometer is an apparatus able to measure the intensity of light in multiple parts of the spectrum, as the light is transmitted, emitted, or reflected. In contrast to spectrophotometers color cameras designed to take pictures, not quantitative measurements, can only detect light in three, wide spectral regions: red, green, and blue. The objective of my study was to test whether a picture from a smartphone camera can be used to quantify accurately differences between colors originating from reflected light. The results demonstrated that a cell phone camera was remarkably efficient and sensitive in registering differences even between closely related colors. However, the differences between colors found by a cell phone camera are not representing well the differences and similarities between the colors. Therefore, it is hard to find groups or families of related colors using a cell phone. On the other hand, a camera can be used to recognize easily a change in color from red to green and from orange to blue. My observations show evidence that a simple cell phone camera can be used as a color sensor.
West Lafayette

Emma Bell
This is a Team Project-14644-1549645473
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Busting with Blood
--Gel electrophoresis is used by CSI to determine which suspect is guilty in a case of murder. It allows the investigator to be able to match up the blood of the killer to the suspect's blood. What gel electrophoresis does is it separates DNA, RNA, and protein. DNA, RNA, and Protein are what scientists call macromolecules. Gel electrophoresis lets us see those macromolecules. This works based on a theory that DNA and RNA are negatively charged. DNA and RNA are also known as nucleic acids. This means that if you put nucleic acids in an electric field, they will migrate to the positively charged end of the field and away from the negatively charged end of the field. Nucleic acids are placed in the gel because the gel holds the nucleic acids in such a way so you know where they are and can see them. Also, migration must occur in such a way that the different sized pieces of DNA and RNA are separated. The gel has microscopic holes that the nucleic acids wiggle into as they migrate along the electric field. This means that the smaller the nucleic acid sequence, the faster they wiggle through the agar gel. So, smaller pieces of nucleic acids, or DNA and RNA, are at the bottom of the chamber and the bigger pieces of nucleic acids are at the top of the chamber. Then, you can match the samples and see which suspect's blood matches the blood of the killer. What we are doing in this experiment is adding more baking soda, which was a substitute for electrophoresis buffer, to our buffer solution and looking to see if it speeds up the process of electrophoresis separation. Forensic scientists often have to wait days or weeks to receive results and this often prolongs an investigation. With our results, we find that it could be possible to obtain this important data in a smaller amount of time.
DeMotte

Chloe Park
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Ticket to Cricket Habitats
-- A single environmental factor drastically changes cricket lifespans. Factors that can affect crickets the most are temperature and humidity. Metabolism rates depend on temperature. If it lowers, then aging and cell reproduction will slow down. Humidity grows fungi. If the full days lived, weight, and length for each cricket are measured, then the prediction that humid crickets will live shortest and cold crickets will live longest has been made. A hygrometer, thermometer, humidifier, silica gel, female crickets, containers, ruler, and a scale are needed. Put one cricket in each container and place them in the assigned environments. Place the humidifier and hygrometer with humid and arid crickets, silica gel with arid crickets, and thermometers with temperature-related crickets. Measure the days lived, weights, and lengths in centimeters for each cricket, and average each environment’s data. All the environments ended up with the same weight, crickets in the hot environment were longest and the crickets in the normal and humid environments were shortest, and the arid crickets lived the most days while the crickets in the hot and cold environments lived least. Using the data, the environments that shorten or lengthen a cricket’s lifespan the most can be stated. The hypothesis that humid environments shorten crickets’ lives and the cold lengthens them the most was rejected because arid crickets lived longest and cold crickets lived the shortest. Humid crickets lived the third most days. Hot crickets were longest and normal, humid crickets were shortest. All had same weights (0.04 grams).
Fort Wayne

Annika Valluru
This is a Team Project-822-1551369101
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Dropping the Base on Acid Rain
--Dropping the Base on Acid Rain Murphy, Emma, R.; Valluru, Aishani; Valluru, Annika; VandeWater, Stella, R. Canterbury Middle School, Fort Wayne, Indiana Acid rain is produced from emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides usually from burning fossil fuels. Acid rain massively damages plant life, animal life, and infrastructure. Limestone is one of few solutions known to counteract acid rain effects. It is predicted that compared to solutions of liquid baking soda and liquid Tums, a solution of liquid pulverized limestone will most effectively counter the damaging effects of acid rain on plant pH levels, growth and health. During a four week experiment, soils of three different acid-rain affected plant types: Sweet Alyssum; Christmas Cacti; and Poinsettia were respectively treated and monitored for soil pH, height and visual condition. Each plant was treated tri-weekly and compared with both untreated plants and unaffected control plants. After four weeks, images of plant cells were captured using a microscope. The Alyssum seedlings were too fragile and none survived. Poinsettia and Cactus soil pH levels and images demonstrated a relationship between good visual health and steady pH level. Limestone treated Poinsettia pH levels only varied from 7.5 to 7.6 while limestone treated Cacti remained steady at 7.6 pH. Baking soda and Tums treated pH levels varied significantly by 0.6 and 0.3 respectively. Plant height data showed that limestone treated Poinsettia grew 3.5 inches while baking soda treated Poinsettia shrunk 2 inches. In conclusion, monitoring and analyzing plant soil pH, height and visual health proved that limestone solution treatment was most efficient in counteracting the effects of acid rain.
Fort Wayne

Katie Schubert
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: The Science of Magic
Fort Wayne

Sophie Sordelet
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: The Stroop Effect
--My project is the Stroop Effect. J. Ridley Stroop created a test, now known as the Stroop Effect, to prove the theory that after years of repeated practice, our brains begin to condition themselves to automatically process tasks without much conscious thought. The purpose of my experiment is to test the validity of the Stroop Effect in support of the automatic brain response. I will ask volunteers to sit and be timed for three readings of the same list of words. One time the words will be in black and white. The next time the words will be in color, and the finale time the readers will have to say the color of the ink in which the words are presented instead of the actual words in front of them. I will compare reading times, record the age and gender of the readers, and determine if the Stroop Effect is real. J. Ridley Stroop created the Stroop Effect. Today, the Stroop Effect Test is when you time a person twice. Once when they say the color of a word that is written down, and then again when they say the actual word that was written down. For example, a test subject is presented with the word “Pink” written in blue ink. The first time the subject says blue, and the second time the subject reads the word “Pink”. Stroop’s theory claims that saying the color is far more different than reading the actual word. I tested and learned that girls are faster than boys at this test. Girls make less mistakes while taking the test as well. Also, younger people are faster and more accurate than older people. In conclusion, out of my 6th hypotheses, 5 were proven correct. However one was proven incorrect.
Fort Wayne

Ava Budak
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Can Parasites Be Eradicated Naturally In Goats?
-- My project addressed the increasing demand for healthy goat meat. Most goats are de-wormed using chemicals. My question was; Can internal parasites be eradicated naturally in capra aegagrus hircus (goats)? Before I began, I thought that the pumpkin seeds would reduce the egg count because the chemical in the seeds (cucurbitacin) would paralyze the worms and eradicate them. I anticipated that pumpkin seeds were bound to be a natural de-wormer. I started my research by collecting fecal samples and performed a fecal egg count test on the feces from three goats. Although internal parasites do not appear as often during the winter, I found one of the three goats to have internal parasites. During the next month, I fed all three goats 60 mL of pumpkin seeds a day in addition to their regular feed. I then tested all three again. What I found was that the two goats that did not have any internal parasites, stayed parasite free. The goat that did have parasites at the beginning of the research had them eliminated. Although my research is continuing in to the spring season, I conclude at this point of my research that pumpkin seeds can be used as a natural de-wormer in capra aegagrus hircus (goats).
Pleasant Lake

Olivia Hesher
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Solar Time
--There is increasing popularity of solar generation in the midwest. When you drive by solar systems do you ever wonder why they are faced the way they are? Does it matter what direction the solar panels are faced? Does the time of day and direction have an impact on the power a solar panel produces for a home or business? This project looks at the power production of facing solar panels at 4 different directions. Then reviewed the power curve of each solar panel over the course of 3 weeks. The solar panel directions were faced in North, East, South, and West. Over the course of each day the power was recorded in kiloWatt-hours and provided a power curve. My hypothesis was the solar panel facing East would best benefit a manufacturing business and the solar panel facing West would best benefit a home. The results of this project did not entirely support my hypothesis. As the South panel produced the most power during the time the first shift manufacturing business needs it. The power curve of the West and South panel best aligns with power usage of a typical home. The North panel produced the least amount of power of the 4 directions tested. This data was gathered in December during the winter solstice which had short days of sun and low sun intensity.
Avilla

Gigi Heimann
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Do You Sleep in Color?
--Can we improve the quality of sleep by the color of light used in the room? I wanted to determine what color would be most effective. My hypothesis was that the pink light will be best to produce better quality sleep because it is known as a calming color. I had four subjects wearing fitness bands sleep on a schedule using colored light bulbs during the night's sleep.. They recorded their length of sleep and deep sleep for each night. The results found that all four participants slept best with the pink light bulb. The yellow light bulb resulted in the poorest sleep for all four participants. The colors ranked in order from best sleep to worst sleep were pink, blue, white, and yellow. The color of the light bulb did affect the length of the subject's sleep. The yellow light bulb was consistently the most difficult for the subjects to fall asleep and stay asleep with it on in their rooms. It seemed to confuse the internal clocks the most, perhaps because it was the most like sunlight. My hypothesis was correct, the pink light did have the most total hours of sleep.
Auburn

Will Michalski
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Cosmic Radia-WHAT!?
--The purpose of this project is to understand if at higher elevations you experience more cosmic radiation. My hypothesis was that at a higher elevation my cloud chamber would catch more cosmic radiation. I believe this because once cosmic radiation interacts with an atom it disappears. So the higher up I am the larger the chance is of catching one before it interacts with an atom. I will conduct my experiment by building a cloud chamber using baking trays, felt, isopropyl alcohol, and dry ice. We will then observe tracks of ionizing radiation at different elevations. We ran into a problem that my dry ice sublimated, or melted, because we did not store it properly. We fixed this by getting new dry ice the next day and storing it properly. We also figured out that the dry ice needs to make direct contact with the baking tray. After i finished my experiment, I concluded that diagonal and vertical radiation were more common at a higher elevation. This can show the world that astronauts in space experience excessive amounts of radiation which, in large doses, can damage the body. Bibliography Science Buddies Staff. "Watching Nuclear Particles: See Background Radiation Zoom Through A Cloud Chamber." Science Buddies, 2 Apr. 2018, https://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/Phys_p087/physics/background-radiation-cloud-chamber. Accessed 29 Nov. 2018. Khan, Sal. “Chemistry of Life | Biology | Science.” Khan Academy, Khan Academy, 2018, www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/chemistry--of-life. “GCSE Bitesize: Background Radiation.” BBC, BBC, 2014, www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_ocr_gateway/radiation/radioisotopesrev1.shtml. "Atoms." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science, edited by K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, 4th ed., vol. 1, Gale, 2008, p. 400. Gale Virtual Reference Library, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CX2830100221/GVRL?u=elkh15284&sid=GVRL&xid=fc69c13c. Accessed 29 Nov. 2018. Leader, Claire. “Ionizing Radiation History.” 1983. Michalski, William Terrence, and Jay A. LaVerne. “Interview-Professor.” 16 Oct. 2018.
Elkhart

Evelyn Shrout
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: How does the material of a microphone screen affect sound?
Granger

Greta Lannon
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: The Power of Noise: Do Sound Waves Affect the Viscosity of Non-Newtonian Fluids
--The purpose of my project was to figure out if sound waves played at high and low frequencies can change the viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids. I personally thought that the noises would affect the fluids; the shear thinning liquid would thin, and the shear thickening liquid would thicken. Additionally, I thought that the high pitch would have more of an effect than the low pitch. To test these theories, I took my three liquids, water -the control- ketchup, and oobleck, and I emptied them through a funnel while the sound played, while recording how long it took for them to empty through the funnel. The results of my experiment were not quite as I thought. While I was was accurate in that the pitches had an effect on the viscosity, I did not expect the low pitch to have more of an effect than the high pitch.
Granger

Hetvi Patel
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Does Color Affect Memory?
--Memory is important because it is a huge part of a person’s identity and is very important in everyday life. Color therapy is very important to the medical field because it can help with regulating a person’s pulse and blood pressure. So how can these two very different ideas be connected? The purpose of my project was to find out whether or not color would influence memory.I hypothesized that photos in color are easier to remember than photos in shades of gray because humans perceive the shape, size, and orientation of objects better when they are seen in color. I investigated the relationship between color and memory by seeing if people remembered photos in black and white or photos in color better. I did this by showing eight participants a slideshow consisting of an even mix of colored and grayscale photos for a specific amount of time. I then showed them the slideshow again with more photos mixed with the others and asked the participants to write down the photos they remembered. My independent variable was which photos were in shades of gray and color, and my dependent variable was the number of gray and colored photos participants remembered. The results were that six out of eight participants remembered more colored photos than grayscale, and the average scores were 4.75/10 colored photos remembered correctly and 4.5/10 grayscale photos remembered correctly. This project can contribute to our scientific knowledge on color therapy and color psychology.
Granger

Enrique Lizarraga
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Which Type of Moisturizers works best on your skin
--Dry Skin is a common problem people have and often doctors recommend treat it with moisturizers but which one will work better keeping the skin moist, which might be the best option to treat dryness? In this project a skin model made out of JELLO (gelatin is derived of collagen, protein found in many tissues in humans) was used to test how well different moisturizers keep the skin moist. My Hypothesis was Petroleum Jelly would keep the skin model moist the longest. The experimental results after registering weight and height of the skin models while using 5 different types of moisturizers on them during 14 days supported my hypothesis by showing that Petroleum Jelly (Vaseline) kept the models moist for the longest time.
Granger

Joseph Moses
This is a Team Project-1046-2498468
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Stealthy Shapes
--Commercial aircraft are detected easily by radar, but stealth planes are built differently than the common plane. To compare the differences, four shapes were placed individually in a box with a flashlight and lux meter. Two of the shapes represented common planes with rounded edges, the other two represented stealth planes with ridged edges. Through the experiments we concluded, stealth planes reflect about half the light commercial planes do. This results in stealth planes showing up on radar as the size of a Golden Pheasant. Stealth planes can stay undercover and are not able to send the signals back such as a common plane. We previously assumed that a black V-shape would reflect the least amount of light, and we believed that the white cylinder would reflect the most light. With thorough testing, we concluded that our hypothesis was correct, but we also found that the smaller the angle was, the less light was reflected.
La Porte

Ravi Pillai
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: How the Strength of a Magnet Varies With Temperature
--Study magnets at different temperatures by using tools you can find in your kitchen, seeing how the magnet’s strength varies.
La Porte

Madison Gresham
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Making Music with Bottles
--In my experiment, I wanted to find the answer to the question: How does the amount of air in an enclosed air column affect the pitch it will produce? To test this, I used 7 same sized water bottles, filled them each with a different amount of water, and tested the pitch by blowing and checking the note using an app. After doing some research, I came up with the hypothesis, if I test 7 different levels of water in the water bottles, then the water bottle with the most water will make the lowest pitch. I predicted this because I know that lower frequencies produce lower pitches, and I believe a water bottle with more water will have less move to room, and therefore likely produce a lower frequency/pitch. To begin the experiment, take 7 water bottles, each with a volume of 12 oz, and fill each with 2 more oz of water than the last. This means you will have a bottle with 0 ounces, 2 ounces, 4 ounces, etc. Test the bottle with the least water first. Blow into bottle and use an electronic chromatic tuner app to test pitch. Test each bottle this way 3 times. Then, make a bar graph of results. Finally, analyze results and form conclusion. After doing the experiment, the results were as follows; The 0 oz bottle had 200.3 hertz. The 2 oz bottle had 220.3 hertz. The 4 oz bottle had 248.3 hertz. The 6 oz bottle had 282.3 hertz. The 8 oz bottle had 339 hertz. The 10 oz bottle had 439 hertz. The 12 oz bottle had 798.7 hertz. By looking at these results, we can see that the highest note was produced by the bottle with the most amount of water. It also shows that the lowest note was produced by the bottle with no water. This means that lower notes were coming from bottles with less water. My hypothesis was that if I test 7 different levels of water in the bottles, then the water bottle with the most water will make the lowest note. However, my hypothesis is not supported by my data. My data concludes that the bottle with the most water produced the highest note, not the lowest. If my hypothesis had been supported, the 12 oz water bottle would have made the lowest note. Since my data can not support my hypothesis, I can conclude that my hypothesis was wrong, and higher levels of water will produce higher note.
Michigan City

Emma Fields
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Gone with the Wind
--This project is to see if the difference in water temperature affects the size of a tornado. The data disproved my theory that the colder water temperature would increase the width of a tornado. The results showed that the warmer the water temperature was, the larger the tornado. This experiment tested 5 different temperatures to see if the size of the tornado's core correlated with the temperature of the water. For a tornado to form you need warm, moist air from the south and cool, dry air from the north. In the tornado chamber, the results beginning at 10 degrees Celsius had an average size of 1.25 cm. At 20 degrees Celsius, the results showed that there was an average of 1.9 cm. Thirdly at 30 degrees Celsius, the average was 2.2 cm. At 40 degrees Celsius, the average was 2.4 cm. Lastly, at 50 degrees Celsius, the average width measured was 2.6 cm. In conclusion, I found out that the differences between water temperatures really does affect the size of the tornado’s core. I think this experiment is partially reliable because most tornadoes do not occur in the winter months. In respective of a real storm that is generated from a 50,000-foot thundercloud, the 0.2 cm that increased in the chamber would result in 833 foot wider tornado core measurement for every 10-degree increase in water temperature. A tornado is a fierce rotating column of air expanding from a thunderstorm to the ground. Many conditions are needed for the progression of a tornado. They usually originate from a cumulonimbus cloud. For a tornado to form you need warm, moist air from the south and cool, dry air from the north. They are also known for usually existing by a cold front and a low-pressure system. Under these conditions, they create instability in the atmosphere. Part of the result of the updrafts and downdrafts in the thunderstorm interacting with the wind shear is the intense spinning of a tornado. According to Accuweather, late spring and early summer is the optimal time for tornadoes throughout the United States. Confined tornadoes can develop year round, but the prime months are from March to July with April to June producing the largest tornadoes. Bibliography Howard, Brian. “Tornadoes: The Science Behind the Destruction.” National Geographic, National Geographic Society, 19 June 2016, news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/04/140430-tornadoes-meteorology-atmospheric-science-disasters/. “Weather Questions & Answers.” Weather Questions, www.weatherquestions.com/What_causes_tornadoes.htm Wicker, Crystal. Weather Wiz Kids Weather Information for Kids, www.weatherwizkids.com/weather-tornado.htm.
Evansville

Charlie Menzel
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Sports Science Endurance Testing
--For my project, I conducted an endurance testing project utilizing spin-bikes. What different workout style will create better endurance results for endurance athletes? The traditional workout or a more complex interval workout? My hypothesis is that the interval subgroup will perform better than the endurance subgroup. The traditional workout was 10 minutes at 80% effort. The interval workout was 10 times 15 seconds at 100% effort, followed by 30 seconds at 50% effort. My test consisted of six subjects broken down into two subgroups of three, the interval subgroup and endurance subgroup. All subjects performed the same control test, a 10-minute ride on spin bikes at 100% effort. After writing down results, at the next meeting, the group was broken down into the subgroups. The endurance subgroup performed a 10-minute ride with a goal of 80% their original distance. The interval group performed a complex interval workout consisting of 10 times 15 seconds at 100% effort followed by 30 seconds at 50% effort. The subgroups repeated these workouts for two additional weeks. Then, on the fifth and final week, the subgroups repeated the original control test of 10-minutes at 100% effort. From here I measured the percent of change from all subject’s first test and second test. The subgroup with the greater percent of change would ultimately be the better preforming group. After the final test, the percent of change from the interval group was 5.453%, the endurance group 5.985%, showing that the endurance subgroup performed better disproving my hypothesis.
Greencastle

Raghav Bakshi
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Losing Ground
--Every year homes and habitats are destroyed by a natural occurrence called soil erosion. This project will test the effectiveness of different variables in or on the soil to prevent soil erosion. My hypothesis was that the pan with a built in retaining wall would prove to be the most effective in preventing this occurrence. To measure this, I took an inclined pan full of soil and sprinkled water over the top to simulate rain. Grass, leaf litter, mulch and rocks, compacted soil and a control were used as variables. I collected the soil and water mixture that drained in another pan. Soil erosion was measured by the amount of soil washed away by filtering it through a coffee filter. After final calculations, the variable that allowed the least amount of soil eroded was grass (5.667g) . The variable that allowed the largest amount of soil eroded was the compacted soil (30g). The retaining wall preformed the second best (11g). It was a 63.33% from that of the compacted soil. During my experiment I noticed that the mass of the wet coffee filter, used in separating the water from the soil, weighed in at 2g more than the dry one. To keep this from skewing my results I filtered every soil/water concentration with a wet coffee filter. The results of my experiment can improve farming on an inclined plane, and it can also help builders prevent small mud flows if they are building on a hill. This is an example of what my results would contribute to the real world.
Terre Haute

Jayne McCormack
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: What is the Effect of Magnetic Fields on Different Types of Water?
--Magnetic fields are an important part of this planet. Without the magnetic field we would be left with little protection from solar radiation and our atmosphere would dissipate faster than it already is. My project is about finding out how magnetic fields affect another very important part of our world, water. To find a solution this question I tested 5 different types of water, deionized water, Tap water, Salt water 1 (3.5% salt), Salt water 2 (5% salt), and Salt water 3 (10% salt), in a magnetic field to measure the rate at which they rotate. I used a plastic container, tin foil, copper wire, 5 cups of water with varying salt content and an AC power source to run this experiment. In my prediction I stated that the deionized water would have 0 rotations per minute, the Tap water would rotate 8 times per minute, Salt water 1 would rotate 15 times for minute, Salt water 2 would rotate 20 times per minute, and finally Salt water 3 would rotate 35 timer per minute. After testing each water 5 times and averaging the number of rotations the results were in the correct order but the amount of rotations I predicted didn't match up. The deionized water had 0 rotations, the Tap water had 3 rotations per minute, Salt water 1 had 19 rotations per minute, Salt water 2 had 36 rotations per minute, and lastly Salt water 3 with 45 rotations per minute. This experiment turned out this way because magnetic fields and electricity are closely related forces that are intertwined in many ways. The electric currents caused the water to revolve around the wire at varying rates per minute dependent on the amount of salt in the water. The more salt in the water the better it conducts electricity and the faster the water revolves.
Terre Haute

Allyson Trump
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: The Human's Sense of Smell
--Do you ever wonder why the teenage boy in the movies fails to notice the pile of smelly clothes in the corner of his room, and the sister or mother is always the one to complain about its unbearable stench? Or why does mom or dad not notice a certain scent before I do? Questions like these were what led me to begin this experiment. I wanted to figure out if whether being a boy or a girl, and how old you are makes a major difference in your ability to recognize smells. I predicted that girls aged 10-14 years old would perform quicker than boys the same age, and boys and girls that age would recognize scents faster than those aged 40-50. In this particular experiment, I blindfolded two males and two females in 8 age groups, ranging between 5-50 years old. I held different foods underneath their noses and timed the amount of seconds it took for each participant to recognize and correctly guess each scent. My hypothesis was closely accurate in comparison to the outcome of my results. Females did outperform the males in the average amount of seconds to recognize the scents, and the younger participants did better than the older ones. The results of this science experiment show that girls have a better sense of smell than boys, and the young have a better sense of smell than the old
Terre Haute

Ethan Aidoo
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Building Structures on a Slope
--Building on slopes has some advantages. Building on sloped land along a hill can strengthen natural air that your home gets. Building on sloped land forces the additional floor levels. However, a disadvantage of building along the side of the hill is a possibility of landslides due to heavy rain. Therefore, it is good to plant deep root trees to help keep the soil close which can prevent landslides.
Terre Haute

Lydia Moran
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: RADIO WAVES FROM NATURAL OBJECTS
--Radio waves are used throughout the world to transmit music, television, cell phone signals, wireless internet, satellite communications, and for many other uses. All of these radio signals are man-made. I think it would be interesting to find out if radio signals are being transmitted and can be detected from non man-made objects.
Fort Wayne

Ben Leising
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Are Cleaning supplies really as Safe as You Think?
--The question I am testing is "Which form of cleaning agent posses the greatest danger to living things?". I am testing this by feeding Lucky Bamboo plants with one tablespoon of a different form of a Clorox cleaning agent to every 2 plants. (A1-A2, B1-B2, etc.) The control is the two plants that I fed water. In this test my hypothesis was that the Multi-Surface cleaner would be the most harmful cleaning agent because of the phthalates and chlorine bleach (which causes damage to your lungs and kidneys). Although I was wrong the Clorox Laundry Detergent was the worst because of the Polyalkylene oxide. (which has been known to shrink your arteries.) The plants started to shrivel because the roots shrank and fell off. The plants could not collect water if they do not have roots. Following the laundry detergent, was the Clorox Multi-Surface and after that was the Clorox Cleaner-Upper which had a more natural form of bleach called calcium bleach which is made from goat milk calcium. The reason I did this project was that most people know that certain cleaning products are dangerous, but they don't know which ones are the most dangerous. I wanted to show people which one's usage should be minimalized. Through my testing I have come to a result that laundry detergents were the most harmful. The usage should be minimalized. According to my research American Chemistry says Chlorine bleach is an anti-bacterial solution of sodium hypochlorite. Household chlorine bleach, used to whiten and disinfect surfaces, it is typically either 5.25 percent (regular strength) or 6 percent sodium hypochlorite (ultra-strength). Chlorine bleach is used in Clorox Multi-Surface cleaner and this article shows the percentage of sodium hypochlorite used in chlorine bleach. Side effects of sodium hypochlorite include hives, itching, shortness of breath, wheezing, cough, swelling of: face, lips, tongue, or throat if prolonged contact occurs. To measure how much the plants were growing I took notes every day. On the first day I set up the whole experiment by collecting the following resources: 3 ft. ruler, 1 notebook, Three different forms of cleaning supplies (laundry detergent, multi-surface cleaner, cleaner-upper spray) all from one brand. (Clorox) 4 tablespoons of each, 6 plastic cups, 1 sharpie, 1 table spoon, 12 cups of water, Measuring cups (assorted), 1 fluorescent grow light, 1 scotch tape roll (1.84ft.). I picked out six bamboo plants, then Set up the grow light, Putting the bamboo sprouts in the plastic cups facing right side of the light. Then I Left the plants under the grow light for 10 days (I marked the 2-cup line so I could refill it every day.) I Turned on and off light at 8:30 am/pm and recorded the height, color, leaf count, and took additional notes. Every other day I added 1 tablespoon to each of the plants (excluding the control plants) I had a few problems like remembering to turn on and off the grow light and taking notes although after setting reminders on my phone I soon got a hang of it. A few things I would do differently would be to start earlier and not procrastinate. I wouldn't have to do all of my typing at once and I could spread out my project if I had more time.
indianapolis

Julia Zerbes
Grade-7 Project Number-
Title: Fingerprint, Where?
--My project is about what substance raises up a fingerprint. Most kids or teens cannot use ninydrogin, the substance FBI and police officers use, so I put four substances to the test to find which substance raises up fingerprints the best.
Michigan City

Raeann Risos
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: Town to Town, Pollution All Around: A Study on Marigold's Growth Response to Selected NWI Towns Soil and Rainwater
--The purpose of this project is to determine whether rainwater and soil gathered from different towns surrounding possible pollutant sources - ArcelorMittal, the Whiting BP Oil Refinery, and Unilever in Hammond - will affect the growth of marigolds. Eleven different soil and rainwater samples from different locations were gathered for experimentation. Rainwater samples were tested for their pH and TDS levels. Five marigolds were planted in each sample and placed underneath LED plant lights. Plants received 10 mL of rainwater daily for two months. Germination and growth were recorded weekly. Gathered data was organized into multiple graphs. Upon data analysis, it could be concluded that there was a correlation between the germination and growth rate of marigolds and the distance of rainwater and soil sources to possible pollutant sources. Whiting and Michigan City samples produced no marigolds. Lowell germinated the most marigolds, and had the tallest height compared to other samples after 2 months. Results showed that closer distances to possible pollutant sources negatively affected marigold germination and growth rate. If marigold growth behavior was affected by soil and rainwater samples from most NWI locations, one might wonder if the same effect happens to other living things, including humans.
St John

Matthew Alcantara
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: Inherit the Wind: Calculating the Coefficient of Lift to Optimize Propeller Blade Design for Aerodynamic Efficiency to Maximize Wind Farm Energy Production through Wind Tunnel Testing with Laminar Flow
--The purpose of this experiment was to determine which design of propeller blade generates the highest voltage during wind tunnel testing to maximize wind farm energy production. Hypothesis: Propeller blades with a higher calculated Coefficient of Lift will produce greater voltage during wind tunnel testing. Null Hypothesis: There is no correlation between a propeller’s Lift Coefficient and its voltage production during wind tunnel testing. Procedure: Calculate the Coefficient of Lift for 5 different propellers with the same diameter. Use these calculations to predict which propeller will generate the most voltage when tested in a homemade wind tunnel with laminar flow. Mount each propeller on a DC motor in the wind tunnel and measure voltage produced with a multimeter. Results: Propellers with a higher calculated Coefficient of Lift generated more voltage. Whether a propeller spun clockwise or counter-clockwise did not have an effect on the amount of voltage generated. Conclusion: The results support the hypothesis and prove that the Coefficient of Lift can successfully be used to predict how efficient a propeller will be in terms of voltage generated during wind tunnel testing. The results also prove that whether a propeller spins clockwise or counter-clockwise does not affect how efficient it is.
Carmel

Laura Martens
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: Fizzy-ology
--The purpose of this experiment was to determine how pH affected the amount of volts generated. Hypothesis: If pH is lower, then voltage will increase (highest to lowest voltage): Coca Cola, Monster Zero, Red Bull, lemon juice, and water (control). Null: Acidity will have no effect on the amount of volts generated. Procedure: The pH of each beverage was taken. Then the voltage was measured using a voltmeter, copper wire, and a nail. Results: In the first test, lemon juice (low pH) produced the highest voltage, followed by Coca Cola (lowish pH), Red Bull (average pH), Monster Zero (average pH), and water (high pH). In the second test, Coca Cola (low pH) was the highest, then lemon juice (low pH), Red Bull (lowish pH), Monster Zero (average pH) and water (high pH). Conclusion: The results supported the hypothesis, as beverages with a lower pH produced a higher voltage. However, lemon juice and Red Bull produced higher voltages than expected.
Carmel

Lexy Foust
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: May the G-Force Be With You
--Lexy Foust Eighth Grade Frankfort Middle School Project category: Animal sciences Abstract May the G-Force Be With You The purpose of my project is to see if introducing a rotational g-force affects the development and metamorphosis of Vanessa cardui larvae (Painted Lady butterflies).I believed that the g-force put on a caterpillar during metamorphosis would affect the caterpillars in a negative manner. When the normal gravitational experience is disrupted, the internal structure that the butterfly forms during metamorphosis will be damaged and not properly formed. I also predicted that the greater the rotational g-force, the more noticeable the negative effects will be. For my experiment, I built 3 rotating machines and attached a 15 RPM motor to one and a 30 RPM motor to one. For the remaining machine you don’t attach a motor since it is your 0 RPM group. And then I set up a control group and set them all in the same location. I checked caterpillars after the first week and measured them to determine growth. I checked the caterpillars daily to observe each date of chrysalis formation. Once a caterpillar entered the chrysalis phase, I transferred that specimen to a large hatching container to finish metamorphosis. I observed each hatching container daily to make note of when specimens emerge. Finally, I rated each butterfly on my developmental scale. I learned the presence of the rotational g-force did affect the caterpillars/butterflies in a negative manner. The higher the g-force put on the butterflies, the faster their metamorphosis stages occurred, but it also caused deformities internally and externally. Butterflies are used a downward pulling g-force, but when I added an additional g-force, that produces negative side effects.
Frankfort

Kara Schwartz
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: Pathetic Passwords
--Kara Schwartz Grade 8 Frankfort MS Project Category: Math and Computers ABSTRACT “Pathetic Passwords” The purpose of my project is to see if the strength of someone’s vocabulary affects how strong their passwords are. In my project I believe it matters. People use words they know in their passwords, so people who have better vocabularies use more complex words in their passwords. For this reason the overall strength is improved in their passwords. To begin, I first created a test to measure the complexity of a student’s vocabulary. To do this, I used the website https://www.flocabulary.com/ to find words that should be known by typical 6th, 7th, and 8th graders. I selected 10 6th grade words from the list, 5 7th grade words, and 5 8th grade words. Then I put them together on a multiple choice test. On the test for each word, I had four possible answers: one correct synonym for the word and three other choices that nothing to do with the words. I also put a box on the bottom of the test for the student to create a password. The password had requirements of 6 to 12 characters long, with any keyboard characters allowed. I tested grades 6, 7, and 8, and graded the vocabulary tests. I used the site http://www.passwordmeter.com/ to strength check each student provided password, too. The data was put into a chart and compared to see if students with higher vocabulary scores produced stronger passwords. Comparing the password scores to the vocabulary scores, I found that the students with less complex passwords had worse vocabulary scores, and the students with more complex passwords had better vocabulary scores. My hypothesis is supported.
Frankfort

Pranav Das
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: Purifying Water with Plants?
-- The main idea behind the project is about removing heavy metals from drinking water. Lots of third-world countries don’t have the infrastructure and regulations to keep drinking water clean. Heating water can kill bacteria, but it can not remove harmful heavy metals such as Lead, Arsenic, Chromium, Copper, and many more. An excess amount of heavy metals in the body can become very toxic and can even cause brain cancer and permanent brain damage. Lead becomes toxic at levels above 15 parts per billion. Around 780 million people don’t have access to an improved water source so many people could be currently exposed to dangerous heavy metals. Activated charcoal filters can filter out these metals but they can cost upwards of 200 dollars. The plan is to find the most effective and practical plant/plant based material which can remove heavy metals from water. The plant parts being used in this project will be very common and easy to obtain, they will also be very cheap so it is more available for common people. In the project, a certain amount of each heavy metal will be dissolved into water. The plants/plant based materials will be used to absorb heavy metals from the solution. After two days the heavy metal concentration will be measured using ICP-OES(Inductively coupled plasma- optical emission spectroscopy). If the results from this project can be spread world-wide, that will be very beneficial for third-world countries that have problems with producing clean water in a cheap and efficient way.
West Lafayette

Arko Mukhopadhyay
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: Removing Water From Plants?
--The main idea behind the project is about removing heavy metals from drinking water. Lots of third-world countries don’t have the infrastructure and regulations to keep drinking water clean. Heating water can kill bacteria, but it can not remove harmful heavy metals such as Lead, Arsenic, Chromium, Copper, and many more. An excess amount of heavy metals in the body can become very toxic. For example, Lead becomes toxic at levels above 15 parts per billion. Around 780 million people don’t have access to an improved water source. Activated charcoal filters can filter out these metals but they are very expensive.The plan is to find the most effective and practical plant/plant based material which can remove heavy metals from water. The plant parts being used in this project will be very common and easy to obtain, they will also be very cheap so it is more available for common people. In the project, a certain amount of each heavy metal will be dissolved into water. The plants/plant based materials will be used to filter out the water, and after two days the heavy metal percentage will be measured using ICP-OES(Inductively coupled plasma- optical emission spectroscopy). If the results from this project can be spread world-wide, that will be very beneficial for third-world countries that have problems with finding clean water.
West Lafayette

Arun Raman
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: Brainy Ads
-- Abstract Neuromarketing has become a quickly growing field. Companies are increasingly using brain and cognitive measuring technologies such as fMRI’s (functional magnetic resonance imaging), 12 electrode EEG’s (electroencephalogram), or eye trackers for their marketing research. However, not all companies are able to use these technologies, as many are too expensive. Using lower cost technologies may be the key to helping small businesses access neuromarketing. Here we attempt to study how brain waves from a low-cost, portable EEG (approximately $100) correlate to advertising effectiveness on teenagers. This experiment used the Neurosky MindWave Mobile headset to measure EEG signals near the frontal cortex. A total of 10 subjects were tested, including a mix of male and female subjects and a mix of ages (within teenage years). 10 advertisements were shown to each human subject, and EEG signal data was acquired using bluetooth for each of the periods during which an advertisement was shown. The data is sampled at 512 Hertz and is recorded as delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2, gamma1, gamma2 wave content, averaged over all 1 second intervals in the given session. As soon as each video finished, the subject completed an onsite questionnaire with 5 questions to determine their subjective feelings on the effectiveness of each advertisement. A week after the viewing, a second, different questionnaire was emailed out that included more quantitative questions on brand image and brand recognition based on their memory. The data for the brain wave contents for each advertisement and subject was normalized using a recommended formula, producing a number from 0 to 1. The onsite questionnaire was analyzed using a point-based scale that allowed for the highest possible value to be 1. The email questionnaire also used a point-based “long-term advertisement effectiveness” scale that included the number of times the advertisement was listed in the email response and if the brand image was positive or negative. It was concluded that advertisements producing a normalized delta value below a certain threshold value have a 0 percent chance of being effective, and a 44 percent chance of being effective if the normalized delta value is beyond that threshold. The trend is opposite for all of the other brainwaves with some variance in the latter percentage.
West Lafayette

Nathan Duttlinger
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: Does Corn have a Sweet Root?
--There are many factors in how healthy a corn stalk is and how well it will yield at harvest. These factors can be the environment, weather, corn hybrid, or the number of nutrients in the soil. The amount of nutrients in the soil is one of the most important factors in the wellness of a corn crop. Maintaining a good nutrient level has been a struggle for farmers for many years because they are spending a large percentage of their money on trying to maintain proper nutrients levels. I have conducted an experiment to try and find a reasonable solution to enhancing organic nutrient levels in the soil, all while keeping the expenses low. To support my experiment I have researched valuable information on how microorganisms are affected by adding granulated sugar in-furrow and how this can improve the crops yield and the farmer's profit. A microbe is a microscopic organism, especially a bacterium, virus, or fungus that usually causes disease or decomposition. Decomposition is the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microbes. The role that microbes have in the soil profile is to decompose organic matter so that it can be used by plants such as corn. When microbes decompose the organic matter they release the usable nutrients from the biomass into the soil. The way that this correlates with my experiment is that if I give the microbes more food (the granulated sugar added) it should increase the productivity and population of the microbes. With this increased productivity and population, the number of nutrients in the soil should be higher. Due to the elevated amount, the corn roots should be able to obtain more nitrogen, carbon and other essential nutrients, which are key building blocks of the corns health and strength. The vital nutrient in corn plants production and its vitality is nitrogen, which is the key building block of building proteins and plant growth. In order for the corn plant to receive nitrogen, it has to be available in the soil in one of two ways. The nitrogen can be supplemented into the soil around the plant by the farmer who applies it or it can also be provided naturally through the nitrogen cycle and microbes. Corn plants depend on a process known as nitrogen fixation to get nitrogen. In the soil are two key bacterium known as Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter. These bacterium are known as nitro-fixing bacteria. Once there is ammonia in the soil from the decomposition, Nitrosomonas converts ammonia into Nitrite. The second step is when the Nitrobacter converts the nitrite into nitrate, which can then be used by the corn plant. In order for this experiment to be successful and logical, it requires variables. I am testing the independent variable by changing the amount of granulated sugar applied to the soil in the seed furrow at planting to see if it has a difference on the yield and profit of the corn crop. The dependent variable is both how the crop yields and what the profit is with and without the granulated sugar added. I have multiple control variables in my experiment to assure that the experiment is equal and consistent. My control variables, which stayed the same during the experiment, are the hybrid of corn, weather, amount of fertilizer applied, planting date, trial time, harvest date, harvesting equipment, planting equipment, harvesting speed, the type of granulated sugar, and soil temperature. My hypothesis is that when adding granulated sugar to the corn furrow at planting the corn crop will yield more and increase profitability. By adding granulated sugar to the soil profile at planting it will increase the production and population of microbes in the soil and as a result of this, the amount of organic matter decomposed will also increase. Due to the increased amount of decomposed biomass, there will be more nutrients in the soil for the corn plant to obtain. I anticipate that the corn will enhance yields which increases the profit of the corn crop.
Wheatfield

Brayden Kollada
This is a Team Project-14612-1549644915
Grade-8 Project Number-
DeMotte

Logan Raymond
This is a Team Project-14612-313565
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: Fun With Filtration
Wheatfield

Isabella Budak
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: How Can We Stop the Spread of Bacteria in Public Restrooms?
--My project was inspired by a recent article that said that hand dryers could be spreading even more bacteria in public restrooms. I wanted to see if that was really the case. Before I started, I wanted to educate myself on bacteria. The bacteria that cause the most illnesses each year are Salmonella, E. coli, and Listeria. Some bacteria are essential to the well-being of your body. For example, the bacteria that creates insulin in your pancreas is extremely important, as is the bacteria in your stomach that aids in breaking down food. There are also bacteria all around us. A new estimate shows that there are over one trillion species of microbes in the world. 99.999% of them have yet to be discovered. Our society are familiar with bacteria just based on our diets. Yogurt has a type of bacteria called a probiotic, which ensures your digestive system is healthy. Pickles have been fermented using their own lactic acid bacteria. Another thing I was curious on is: what makes businesses want to install hand dryers? On www.greenbiz.com, it states “. . . according to Excel Dryer, in contrast to paper towels, which can cost $15 to $30 or more per case, the energy costs of using a hand dryer amount to pennies per day. The average cost of paper towels is 2 cents per hand dry versus 1/10th of a cent using an XLERATOR hand dryer.” Many establishments are doing it purely for the cost difference, as well as maintenance. Many businesses also do it for environmental reasons. Purchasing an energy efficient hand dryer can benefit a corporation greatly. Throughout my experiment I focused on the question: Do public hand dryers increase the bacteria count on your hands? I chose two locations that I thought were the most common public places to go to the bathroom. More than one in three Americans eat fast food every day, so it seemed logical that I picked a fast food restaurant, McDonald’s. Also, many people attend big-box stores, so my second choice was Rural King. I began my research on December 31, 2018. My hypothesis states: I believe restroom hand dryers will transmit more bacteria to your hands than other drying methods. The independent variable for this project was the drying method used. I experimented with air drying/paper towels and using a hand dryer. My dependent variable was the bacteria amount. Finally, my control was the soap amount, washing time and drying time. My procedure was to first swab an unwashed hand with a damp, sterile cotton swab. I left one half of the petri dish blank to make sure it was not contaminated with bacteria to begin the study. My next step was to apply the cotton swab in a zigzag motion to the side of the appropriate petri dish not labeled with control. This was to ensure that all of the bacteria could be transferred successfully to the agar. Then, I washed my hands for one minute at Rural King and used an alternate drying method. I swabbed my hands again with a wet cotton swab and ran it over one half of the petri dish. The next step was to wash my hands again for one minute, and dry them for one minute. I swabbed my hands again and distributed the cotton swab through the petri dish. I repeated this process for McDonald’s (Location #2) and did three trials at each location. Next, I took all six petri dishes from the first trial and placed in an incubator at a temperature of 33.8 degrees Celsius (93 degrees Fahrenheit) to let the bacteria grow. I repeated this procedure every two days for both locations until three trials had been accomplished. Finally, I recorded my observations every two days with the final bacteria count being one week for each of the trials. My final data shows that hand dryers do prove to be putting out more bacteria onto your hands after they have been washed. Unwashed hands had the highest bacteria count on them as was expected. The results clearly show that hand washing is essential to stopping the spread of bacteria. The alternate drying method had less than 250 colonies of bacteria for both locations and all three trials. Hand dryers was found to be the worst method for drying your hands. They spread up to three times more bacteria than air drying and paper towels. I concluded that my hypothesis was correct.
Pleasant Lake

Alec Bowker
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: backyard blacksmith
--my project was on the hardness of the metal after quenching. the purpose was to see what temp I should use to harden my knives. I used 5 different temps on 5 different pieces of metal and 1500 was the hardest so my hypothesis was wrong.
butler

Meia Walker
This is a Team Project-14739-1550161701
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: Controlling Food Intake
--The purpose of this project was to solve the problem of eating too fast, which can cause other problems if not stopped. M.P.M. works by using a light that flashes when you're hand passes over the device. This works because it makes you more self-conscious of how fast you are consuming your food. We had three test subjects that took two tests. Each test subject used, ate the same food. The first test was to examine how fast they consume their food without using M.P.M. The second test was using M.P.M. to test how much slower they eat while using the device (M.P.M).For example subject two. Before using the device they ate 12 bites per minute. While they were using the device they ate only 8 bites per minute. That is an amazing improvement, they slowed down by 4 bites per minute. Which proves the device works as intended. My hypothesis is that M.P.M. would slow down their eating. The test showed that when the test subjects used M.P.M. their eating slowed down. Therefore my hypothesis was correct. I believe that this device will work even better if it is refined. Such as using more advanced equipment. Such as a 555 timer, NAND logic gate, a closed circuit, and bigger breadboard. Our project could have been more advanced, but it works as intended. We could have also had more test subjects and different situations. Overall we did complete the goal. Which was, to find and create a solution for eating too fast.
Evansville

Kylie Clayton
This is a Team Project-14745-1550171000
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: Sound Frequencies Can Change Your Heart
--The purpose of this experiment was to test whether or not frequencies (Hz) would change a human’s heart rate. Our hypothesis was, “If we raise the frequency of a sound, then a person’s heart rate should increase because our brain waves are altered, and our heart rate changes with them.” The experimental method of this experiment was to turn on the computer and get on youtube. The participant would sit in a chair and listen to a range of frequencies ranging from 1,000 to 5,000. Our data has supported our hypothesis by showing that frequencies raised heart rate the higher they went.
Evansville

Peyton Ashley
This is a Team Project-908-1549899940
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: Squeaky Clean
--The project, Squeaky Clean, tests what cleaning solution is best to clean germs off countertops. It is debated whether Windex, dish soap solution, specialized countertop cleaners, or even water works best! It was hypothesized that a specialized countertop cleaner(Simple Green) would eliminate the most simulated germs off of a countertop sample, since it’s specially designed to do so. To achieve accurate results, avoiding the use of live germs, Glo Germ, a product consisting of plastic simulated germs that glow under UV light, is spread on a square foot countertop sample. Each of the four solutions was sprayed onto the countertop one test at a time, and wiped for 4 seconds. Then, a UV light is shown over the sample, revealing glowing substances showing the active Glo Germ. Success rate is determined by comparing square inches with and without glow. Referencing the data graphs, the results were surprising, since no substance reached even a 60% success rate! Windex proved to be the best at eliminating the simulated germs, with a 57% success rate, then followed by both a dish soap mixture and Simple Green(a specialized countertop cleaner), both with 51% success rates. Water was least the successful cleaning substance, with a weak success rate of 29%. These results didn’t match the hypothesis since the specialized countertop cleaner wasn’t the most successful. To conclude the results, Windex is the best at eradicating germs off countertops. Cross-contamination is making millions sick each year, but these results have the potential to prevent simple negligence.
Newburgh

Kaitlyn Kahle
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: The Effect of Sugar to Aspartame Ratio on Yeast Fermentation
--People all around the world work on eating less calories. In the experiment, ratios of sugar to aspartame were measured in grams and mixed with an appropriate amount of water along with and appropriate amount of yeast. The mixture sat for 5min to then be placed into fermentation tubes and then placed into the oven at 100 degrees for 12 minutes. Then the amount of carbon dioxide was measured in each tube after 3, 6, 9, and 12 minutes. The results show that carbon dioxide production is maximized at a 3:2 ratio of sugar to aspartame. This indicates that bakers can still achieve desired levels of rising when using less calories with aspartame.
Chandler

Anika Paranjape
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: Interesting Insulators
--In my experiment I wanted to find out which insulator retains heat the best. For this experiment I used the materials cloth, tissue paper, wool, straw, sand, fiberglass insulation, and soil. I boiled water and put it in a covered glass cup with no holes for the air to escape out of, then I put this cup inside a shoebox and filled the empty space with the insulator of choice. I checked the temperature every 5 minutes with a celsius and fahrenheit thermometer. I then recorded the data in a table on EXCEL and graphed it. After graphing the data I analyzed the data.
NEWBURGH

Shums Parkar
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: Rate of Fermentation of Different Sugars
--The purpose of this project was to see if yeast ferments disaccharides as efficiently as polysaccharides. Fermentation is the method used to make bread by using yeast to break down the sugar in the bread, which is what the experiment was based on. My hypothesis was that yeast fermented disaccharides quicker than polysaccharides because disaccharides have fewer sugar bonds than polysaccharides, thus reducing the time. My hypothesis was proven correct based on my experiments that showed findings consistent with sucrose (a simple disaccharide) having the most number of bubbles per minute (the rate in which the experiment results was be based on) in relation to maltose and cellulose. Maltose was second as a more complex disaccharide with half as many bubbles each minute in relation to sucrose because maltose has an extra H2O molecule in the formula. Lastly, cellulose, the polysaccharide, had the least number of bubbles with about half as many compared to maltose since cellulose has many chemical bonds in each molecule.
Newburgh

Paavan Kumar
This is a Team Project-826-1549637133
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: What is the Best Homemade Web Fluid Solution?
--Almost every young kid fantasizes about having the powers of a superhero, Spider-Man being one of the favorites. This inspired us to set out to find the best overall homemade formula for spider silk, and we came up with three main formulas (the independent variables of the experiment). The first one, Formula #1, consists of glue, contact solution, and baking soda. Formula #2 consists of xanthan gum, shampoo conditioner, dish soap, and water. Finally, last but not least, Formula #3 consists of glue, water, corn starch, dish soap, and baking soda. Before testing though, we made the prediction that Formula #2 would do the best overall, but Formula #1 ended up being our best formula. We ran three different tests, to analyze the strength, stickiness, and stretchiness of the formula (the dependent variables of the experiment). For our strength, we connected approximately a tablespoon of the formula on a 1.2 ounce pencil, then timed how long it would take for the part of the formula that was attached to the pencil to disconnect from the rest of it. For stickiness, we placed a tablespoon of formula to a flat surface, held it about a foot of the ground, then flipped it upside down and timed how long it took for it to hit the floor. Finally, for stretch, we took a tablespoon of each and measured how long it would extend until it detached from the original tablespoon.
Terre Haute

Andrew Kinne
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: On Desalination Efficiency
--There are many areas of the world with a lack of clean drinking water. However, some of these areas have access to salt water. The desalination of salt water is a costly time-consuming and energy intensive process. There are multiple ways to do it. Two common methods are reverse osmosis and distillation. The first and more large scale process is reverse osmosis(RO). The second method is distillation. This process is a lot simpler and requires much less infrastructure than RO. Because reverse osmosis is not very doable for me, I will be concentrating on the stovetop distillation process. I will be using a heat source (stove) under a pot to boil the water and the collect the steam and finish the process. This method wastes energy every time but is small scale, inexpensive, and transportable, which make it an ideal to use in a third world country or somewhere without access to clean water. I will have two different designs that will be tested against each other to see which one is the fastest as well as which is the most energy efficient. My two different designs revolve around the cooling of the steam. My theory is that the faster the steam cools and condenses, the more capacity your setup will have. Also faster condensation means that less steam will escape the system, and because of that you will need less water than if you had a less efficient system. I believe that the coil setup (setup #2) will work better because this setup has more time to cool the steam and thus less steam is lost. The reason the coiled setup would cool faster because the steam pipe has more contact with the water and this means heat can be distributed faster. To complete this project, I will build the two different styles of distillers: setup #1 is the most simple design where a closed pot is connected to a copper tube, which goes to a collection bottle. The steam collection bottle is placed in a can of water to help with cooling the steam. Setup #2 has the same pot and copper tubing, but the tubing is coiled and immersed in water, and then connected to a collection bottle. After creating the distillers, boil water in order to test the setups to ensure that all seals are tight (look for steam escaping). Seal any seams. Fill the cooling chamber with cold water (doesn't need to be distilled water since it is only used for cooling). Fill the pots with specific amount of water (½ cup, 1 cup, 1.5 cups). Boil over high/medium heat until no water is left in pot. Record how long it took and how much water you end with. The testing concluded that the coil design (#2) outperforms the simple design (#1). The coil design not only had lower times to distillation but also had better output volume results. It outperformed the simple design at all water levels at all temperatures as well. The only thing that the simple design won out on is the durability. The coil design broke much more frequently than the simple design. These results were pretty much as expected but the time on high heat was a bit of a surprise. My hypothesis was correct. The coil setup was the best overall in terms of distillation time and volume of distillation. It not only had the most output of water, but also had lower average times of distillation, regardless of energy used to distill. Also, I noted that the coil setup produced cold drinkable water and the simple setup produced scalding hot water.
Terre Haute

Ruth Rodriguez
This is a Team Project-14554-1548469002
Grade-8 Project Number-
Title: Open Your Mouth
--People chew gum and gum is seen everywhere. Why do people chew cinnamon gum? Sometimes it is to distract ourselves, or because we need our breath to smell better. The purpose of this experiment was to see how much bacteria there is in people’s mouths and how chewing cinnamon gum could decrease the amount of bacteria in our mouths. Our first step was to heat up the Luria Bertani agar and then pouring it into plates. After this we then started to swab people’s mouth before and after chewing the gum. Our hypothesis was if our subjects were to chew Big Red instead of Trident, then we believe that Big Red will affect the bacteria in their mouths more than Trident, since Big Red is more known for their cinnamon spice in their gum brand. Our experiment is supported by our results, as it shows that girls and boys have different results. Showing that Trident worked out for the boys with not showing any bacteria while for girls Big Red worked out for them.
Richmond

Sowmya Chundi
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Using Zika Virus Proteins NS4A and NS4B to Investigate Oncolytic Virus Therapy Against Glioblastoma Cancer
--Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive form of brain cancer (
Carmel

Safiya Sankari
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Study and Effects of Nitrogen, Phosphate and Potash on Daphnia magna
--Agriculture and its related industries account for $992 billion dollars of America’s GDP, and 11% of total US employment, simultaneously agricultural runoff is considered to be the primary form of marine pollution. Agricultural runoff is excess water entering farmland fields at a rate greater than the infiltration rate of the soil. Daphnia magna, because of their ability to be a bioindicator for a watersheds health, as well as a critical part of the aquatic food chain, was used in this study to determine the effect agricultural runoff had on watershed health. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect different concentrations of plant food have on Daphnia magna population levels. 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations of both African Violet Plus Plant Food (AV+) and All Purpose Plant Food (AP) were prepared. This plant food is consistent with what is found on farms in Central Indiana. Each concentration was split into 3 containers, with .5L of solution in each. Control and control fed samples were prepared in the same manner using spring water. 20 Daphnia magna were placed into each container, and were measured and monitored every 24 hour periods. Results revealed that all concentrations had a die off rate factor greater than the control, with the exception of the 50% concentration of AV+. In addition, results for the fed populations with plant food showed a consistently downward trend in comparison to control fed populations. In conclusion, this data suggests that agricultural runoff in any amount negatively affects the freshwater ecosystems fauna, and could be detrimental to the livelihood of the watershed, although further research is warranted.
Indianapolis

Zachary Benson
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions With Peridotite and Olivine
--The purpose of this project is to determine if Peridotite and Olivine will absorb enough gaseous CO2 from the exhaust of a small 4-stroke gasoline engine to cause a significant reduction of CO2 emissions. If Peridotite and Olivine are placed in the exhaust pipe of a small 4-stroke engine, then there will be a significant reduction in CO2 emissions. There were two test groups, one of Peridotite and one of Olivine. There was also a control group with no rocks. There were five runs of Peridotite, five runs of Olivine, and five control runs. Exhaust CO2 levels, inside pipe temperature, exhaust output temperature, and backpressure were all recorded during the runs. After all tests were run, the rocks were massed and tested for carbonate. Peridotite showed a reduction in CO2 emissions much better than Olivine. Almost all of the Peridotite test group rocks tested positive for CO2, while none of the Peridotite control rocks tested did. A large difference in exhaust output temperatures were observed between the control and test groups. There was also a difference in inside temperatures observed between the control and test groups. This data partially supports my hypothesis.
Kokomo

Grace Briney
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: The Effect of Learning Styles on Self Esteem
--The purpose of my project is to see if there is a correlation between mental health and learning styles. If a student has a kinesthetic learning style, then they may have low self esteem. After testing, I found that there wasn't a correlation between learning style and self esteem. This may not be accurate, though, because students may not have answered truthfully.
Kokomo

Helen Fivecoate
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: The Protective Qualities of Non-Newtonian Fluids in Bicycle Helmets
--The purpose is to find a more durable bicycle helmet liner. The prediction was a non-Newtonian fluid consisting of cornstarch and water (Oobleck) can repetitively provide the same level of bicycle helmet protection as EPS, the current standard bicycle helmet liner. This was tested by dropping a head sized weight from 2m onto a sample of Oobleck, EPS, and Silly Putty, another non-Newtonian fluid and viscoelastic material. The Silly Putty allowed a maximum average deceleration of more than 510g for each trial. The Oobleck limited the average maximum deceleration to 170g and was within the CPSC standard of 200g and was around this number multiple times on the same pieces. The EPS for the first impact allowed an average of 165g, within the CPSC standard of 200g and for the 2nd impact allowed over 500g. Each material had standard deviations of less than 10% so my data was accurate. Every impact a had similar total impulse, meaning each impact had about the same amount of total force. As hoped the Oobleck repetitively lowered the maximum number of g's and protected the 'head'.
Kokomo

Brenna Morrow
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Purity of Water: a Survey of Water Samples
--The purpose of the experiment is to survey different water samples to determine the purity of the water based on nitrates, phosphates, pH, and presence of microplastics. If I introduce microplastics to distilled water, then the water will contain visible microplastics and higher levels of nitrate, phosphate, and pH. I used distilled water for my control variable, then spring water, municipal water, well water, surface water, and distilled water with microplastics. I tested the pH, nitrate, and phosphate levels for each type in five separate samples and filtered for any microplastics. After averaging the levels from all the samples of each type, I determined that adding microplastics to the control, distilled water, increased the pH from 6.6 to 8.2 while also adding the presence of nitrate with a level of 1.6. I concluded that the presence of microplastics appear to affect water by adding nitrate and raising the average pH level of the distilled water. Although the level was still within the normal range for drinking water, one might conclude again that the presence of microplastics did raise the pH level. This calls into question the purity of water when microplastics are present.
Kokomo

Grant Robb
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Antibacterial Effects of Neem Oil
--The purpose is to test if neem oil eliminates bacteria commonly found on the face. If the bacteria is adversely affected, then the Neem Oil has an effect on bacterial inhibition. Neem oil at varied amounts was applied to bacillus subtilis, and micrococcus luteus. The full set of neem oil against the bacillus did not inhibit the bacteria at all. The full set of neem oil against the micrococcus it completely inhibited the growth of micrococcus. The half set of neem oil against the bacillus did not inhibit the bacillus. The half set of neem oil completely stopped the growth of the micrococcus. The quarter set of neem oil did not inhibit the bacillus at all. The quarter set of neem oil completely stopped the micrococcus. An agar was used with Neem Oil, and either bacillus subtilis or micrococcus luteus, to test if the neem oil could eliminate the bacteria. The bacillus was not inhibited at all, while the micrococcus was always eliminated. Within the first day the bacillus had completely grown except for two which were at 80% and 80% of growth. The micrococcus were at 0% the first day of growth. The second day the bacillus was all at 100% while two were at 80% and 90% of growth. The second day for micrococcus were all at 0%. The third and final day for the bacillus were all at 100% except for two which were at 90% of growth. The third day for the micrococcus were all at 0% of growth.
Kokomo

Andrew Lipton
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: The Removal of the Environmental Toxin PFOA from Water: Evaluating Fluorocarbon and Cationic Membranes and Resins
--Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a cancer-causing, environmental toxin that is found in the bloodstream of 98% of the U.S. population. PFOA is widely used in a variety of industries and has been found in bodies of water worldwide. In my experiments, I wanted to figure out how to remove PFOA from water using different kinds of membranes and resins. For my experiment, I used membranes and resins that were complementary to PFOA, either fluorinated (PTFE) or cationic, or a combination of both. For my experiments, I investigated a number of variables, including the concentration of PFOA in water, the amounts of membranes and resins, time (1 hour, 24 hours and 2 weeks) and using contact only or flow through the materials. I found that in the contact experiments, overall, the cationic materials removed more PFOA than the PTFE materials, with the cationic membrane removing up to 95% of the PFOA after 24 hours and the cationic resin completely removing the PFOA from my solutions after 2 weeks!. I think that the cationic membranes performed the best because they had a larger surface area as compared to the resin, and did not float or repel the water like the PTFE materials. In the flow experiments the cationic membrane performed the best with 71% removal, until I used 3-times the amount of cationic resin and removed 96% of the PFOA in 30 seconds!! In the end, I think that my experiments were a success because I was able to identify an effective way to remove PFOA from water.
Lafayette

Jeremy Hampton
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Comparing Environmentally Friendly Alternatives For Single-Use Plastic Straws
--When ten environmentally friendly straws made from different materials are placed in liquids including Coca Cola, room temperature water, and boiling water for time increments of one, two, and three hours does this change the straws durability and integrity. If straws are placed under evenly dispersed weight to see how much weight the straws can hold and how the straws react to different liquids; then the straws with no water will hold the most, the straws with room temperature water will hold the second most, the Coca Cola will hold the third most, and the boiling water straws will hold the least. The experiment results support the hypothesis with dry straws holding the most weight, and boiling water holding the least weight. Although in the three hour category the Coca Cola straws lost enough ability to hold weight to match the boiling water straws making the hypothesis partly correct in the third hour. In conclusion, all dry straws were able to hold up five pounds and the bamboo, glass, and stainless steel straws were able to hold up the most weight in all conditions. Also boiling water affected the straws the most with the most straws collapsing at the lowest weights. This experiment has real world significance because straws are an example of a single use plastic which are bad for the environment because plastic straws can’t biodegrade naturally. Another example of real world significance is that companies are starting to ban straws which make buying straws that are reusable more important because some people cannot live without straws.
Lafayette

Siya Goel
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Improving Treatment for Alzheimer's by Enhancing Tyrosine Phosphorylation of the DAB1 Protein through Lauric Acid
--Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurological disorder that effects memory and is the third leading cause of death. The downregulation of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is involved in late-onset of Alzheimer’s disease. Studies also suggest that VLDLR and APOER2 (LRP8) genes lead to the downregulation of the APOE gene. These genes are downregulated because of messages from DAB1 protein. The DAB1 protein interacts with cadherin proteins on the receptor for VLDLR and APOER2, which causes tyrosine phosphorylation. When tyrosine phosphorylation occurs, more signals are being sent to maintain neuron signals and stability, preventing amyloid plaques to be formed in Alzheimer’s. Thus, the purpose of this research was to examine whether adding Lauric Acid to DAB1 protein leads to increase in tyrosine phosphorylation thus reducing the risk of Alzheimer. Both computational and experimental studies were conducted. Bioinformatics tools like GEO2R BLAST and string-db were used to find a connection between the VLDLR, DAB1, and LRP8 (APOER2). Further, Schrodinger’s construction suggested the most spontaneity between Lauric Acid and DAB1 complex when bounded to the cadherin proteins. Next, a three-staged experimental study was conducted which included culturing NIH-3T3 cells, preparation of plasmid, transfection using PEI, crosslinking of beads, immunoprecipitation using Protein A beads, protein quantification, combining fatty acid and DAB1 protein by BSA, combining DAB1 protein/ fatty acid mixture and cadherin protein, and recording results using FRET microscope. The results suggest that adding Lauric Acid to the DAB1 protein does increase the intensity of tyrosine phosphorylation of DAB1 protein thus decreases the risk of Alzheimer's because of the structural changes in the protein, further supporting the hypothesis.
West Lafayette

Kreesha Saha
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: A Systems Dynamics Model Exploring the Continuous Biodegradation of Plastic
--Every year, the global production of plastic climbs higher and higher. In 2013, the worldwide production of plastic was 299 million metric tons. By 2015, the worldwide production had reached 322 million metric tons per year, an amount that will only continue to increase. Laccase is an oxidase enzyme that acts on lignin, a phenolic polymer present in many vascular plants. PET plastic contains a benzene ring, which is similar in structure to a phenolic ring. Therefore, there is a possibility that laccase will bind to PET plastic and degrade it. During this project, a systems dynamics model was created in the program Stella to determine the feasibility of using the enzyme laccase, produced by Trametes versicolor fungi, to degrade PET plastic. Three variables were tested: amount of given media, dilution rate, and amount of starter fungi. The graphs for given media and dilution rate peaked at 11 and 8 mg/L of degradation, respectively, in comparison to the graph for starter fungi, which peaked at 2700 mg/L. It was determined that the amount of starter fungi was the biggest variable contributing to fungal growth, and therefore the degradation of PET plastic. In addition, fungal growth declined as dilution rate increased, implying that batch culture is a better option for plastic degradation, in comparison to continuous culture. Fungal growth increased as given media increased, showing that fed-batch culture is the most effective method of increasing fungal growth and PET plastic degradation.
West Lafayette

Sarah Rodenbeck
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Emotional Differences of Siblings of Pediatric Cancer Patients
--The purpose of this experiment is to determine the emotional impact that pediatric cancer has on the siblings of cancer patients. The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was used as a tool to determine this. This is a psychological survey primarily used to determine the relative positive and negative emotions of the respondents. The PANAS survey was taken by all respondents and the average positive and negative scores were taken from both groups. A total of 21 pediatric cancer siblings, and 37 non-cancer siblings took the survey. The data shows that the pediatric cancer siblings had an average lower positive score and an average higher negative score than the non-cancer siblings. If further research were to be done, the siblings of pediatric cancer patients should be asked if their sibling is still going through cancer treatment, as well as what type of cancer does their sibling have. These added questions would add extra insight to find out if there is a difference of positive and negative emotions between these siblings based on their sibling’s diagnosis.
Fort Wayne

Elijah Bass
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Propelled Energy
--This experiment explores the correlation between fin design on mini wind turbines and the amount of energy produced by the a mini wind turbine. To produce similar results to mine, you must have: a mini wind turbine, a way to make a nose with fins on your wind turbine, fan, a way to measure your energy produced by the fan, and different shapes to test. The different shapes provide different surface areas to blow on to see how much resistance you get when you blow a fan on it. There are lots of different variables that you can put into this experiment. Many of those variables are found in the different materials you use and the different placement of the turbine you have. This experiment helps us understand that you have to have a perfect surface area to weight ration on a large scale wind turbine to produce the huge amount of energy that they do.
Harlan

Miranda Freeman
This is a Team Project-14165-1551318431
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: The Effect of Light on Radish Plants
--Our project was all about testing to see how the different variations of light can affect the growth on the plant. We ran our experiment by watering the plants daily then every three days collected data. We collected the data by measuring one out of the three plants in the different lighting. Our results supported our hypothesis, which meant the plant in complete light grew the most.
Fort Wayne

Isabela Ogg
This is a Team Project-14165-1547238304
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Does Age Affect Fear?
--This project was created to try to understand how a person’s age affects their fears. The hypothesis chosen is, “If the participants are older, then the more realistic their fears will be”. The hypothesis was tested by asking people of different age groups to take a survey that consisted of multiple choice questions. These questions were all about different fears. The results are the adults have more realistic fears then unrealistic fears.
Fort Wayne

Olivia Benbow
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: The Role of Algae in the Evolution of Aquatic Macroorganisms
--This experiment was designed to test the sustainability of populations of Ampullariidae snails and Chlorella algae, all of which were placed into jars along with 300mL of distilled water, which were sealed to create small biospheres where the species would be kept for a period of eight days. The test was meant to help determine the role that algae had during the evolution of aquatic species of macroorganisms through use of evidence derived from the tests. The experiment consisted of four controls and three testing units, each of which contained 50mL of algae and 300mL of distilled water with ascending populations of snails in each unit (1,2, and 3.) The jars were sealed after measures of dissolved oxygen and light absorption rates at various calibrations were measured. When eight days had passed, the jars were opened and the previous measurements were taken again and recorded. The results of the experiment supported the idea that smaller populations of carbon dioxide synthesizing organisms created the most sustainable environment with the algae, but with the extreme populations of algae at the time when macroorganisms first began their evolution, the role of algae would be to act as the keystone species responsible for the production of both oxygen and food. The impact of algae throughout the evolution of aquatic species has been so massive that the existence of current species and organisms would have never come to be without it.
Auburn

Eva Hallman
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Which Method of Distilling Salt Water Removes the Most Salt?
--Abstract This project is designed to figure out the best method of distilling. As distilling can be used multiple ways with different substances. This project can help the growing problem of countries that do not have access to pure safe drinking water. As some countries are surrounded by saltwater, but have no way to make it safe. Consuming salt water can make you dehydrated and then you could die. I chose this project, so I could understand the bigger threat that those countries face, as water is so important to human survival. After doing this project I realized that you do not need to spend big bucks for a water distiller. As all you need is a giant pot, a rack, a glass bowl, ice, and a stove. Itś that simple and it does not cost hundreds of dollars. The overall problem of this project is testing what method removes the most salt. Could it be the ZOKOP Automatic, Stovetop, or Solar. Testing all three required a constant, which was the amount of salt going into the salt water replicate. Our ever changing variable was how the distilling worked, how much salt was in the distilled water. The results were surprising as the expensive ZOKOP removed only 90% of the salt, while the DIY Stovetop removed 99%. Even the water bottle solar testing removed 87% of the salt. That means there were still traces of salt in the distilled water. In which could be tasted when sampling the water. This project has allowed me to gain knowledge about how I can help the world, and help fight a much bigger fight that other countries are facing. My objective that I created was met, because I learned that bigger is not always better and what seems safe is not as safe as you think. I hope to one day help third world countries with my research.
Auburn

Gavin Kling
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Solar Power: Panel Position Impacting Energy Amount
--This project is about solar power. The problem the project is facing is that of pollution and depleting non-renewable resources. I try to tackle it in a way that is small but could have a big impact. While this is a small scale test it can transverse into bigger scale solar plants. Solar power is harnessing the sun to create something. When you use passive solar power it is used in a way that is more along the lines of heating something up such as a room or food. Creating fire is another form of passive solar power. The rest is when you are creating energy. In the project I tried to take measurements every 30 minutes of voltage put out by three combinations of solar cells. My hypothesis was that the one that was pointing in many different directions would generate the most electricity. This turned out to be wrong, in the end the control was the best.
Auburn

Travers Mason
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: How Drinking Fountains Affect the Transmission of Bacteria
--With flu season on the rise, many people avoid trying to use public utilities. Bacteria can easily be transmitted from places like doorknobs, restrooms, and drinking fountains. Drinking fountains, being a leading cause of the transmission, can allow viruses and bacteria like E.Coli, Rotavirus, Norovirus, and the dreaded Legionella disease, as well as a multitude of other diseases to be transmitted, simply by taking a quick sip. These fears make sense. For example, Polio, a gut virus, is shed in feces, and infection comes from swallowing tiny amounts of fecal matter. It is also mostly a disease of children, who do not always take the necessary precautions to mitigate against these viruses. Done so by washing their hands after using the restroom. Unfortunately, an overwhelming majority of school drinking fountains are located just outside of any restroom. All it takes is for one person to not wash their hands, and use the drinking fountain. This has caused scientists to believe that public drinking fountains are one of the leading causes of the transmission of the Influenza virus in primary schools. This predicament, as well as my want to explore the fields of microbiology, lead me to this experiment. My goal was to see if there was a correlation between the pressure of the drinking fountain, and how it affected the bacterial transmission. I began by measuring the pressure of each fountain by examining the ratio between the amount of water exiting the fountain over a given period of time. Following this, I swabbed around the mouth nozzle of each fountain with a sterile Q-tip and placed the bacteria on a petri dish. Allowing the bacteria to grow and cultivate for 24 hours in a comfortable environment for them. As a result, I discovered that although there are occasional variables that could change the results of my experiment. Data shows that drinking fountains with a lower pressure had an increase in bacteria. (Images shown on page 8.) So in conclusion, be conscious of drinking from these fountains, and make sure to always wash your hands after using the restroom, cooking, or anything that would get your hands dirty.
Waterloo

Madelyn Cerney
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Fuel Efficiency: Which Additive is Most Effective?
--The purpose of this research was to find an additive to be mixed with gasoline that was efficient as well as effective. Three different additives were used in the experiment: An octane booster, a carb and throttle body cleaner, and 2-cycle engine oil, along with a control of pure gasoline. The solutions were put into the engine via a graduated syringe and a fuel line. The initial amount of fuel was recorded and the engine was run for three, six, and ten minute intervals. The remaining solution was measured and recorded at each interval. All data was analyzed and a burn per minute rate was computed. The 1:1 cleaner and gas solution was the least efficient out of the solutions. The octane booster was the most effective and efficient out of all the solutions in the six and ten minute tests. The octane booster packaging did claim to improve fuel efficiency over time, and the ten minute test of the octane booster solution was the most efficient of the testing. The ten minute test is also more applicable to the real world as engines are typically used for longer periods of time than three or six minute intervals.
South Bend

Kailyn Coates
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Minimizing Bacteria In The Thawing And Cooking Of Meat
--The purpose of this experiment was to find which method of defrosting meat is the safest, and which method of cooking meat kills the most bacteria. In the experimental procedure I separated and packaged meat to be frozen. Some packages were taken out to be thawed on the counter, the rest were thawed in the refrigerator. From there half of the packages were set aside to be tested and the rest were cooked in either the oven or microwave. When all the samples were ready to test, I puréed each piece of meat in a blender and did a dilution method. It took forty eight hours for bacteria to then form in the Petri dishes, I then counted the colonies. The results included refrigerator thawed, counter thawed cooked in the oven, thawed on counter baseline count, and counter thawed cooked in the microwave performing the best. In conclusion, my hypothesis wasn’t well supported. I believed that refrigerator thawed and refrigerator thawed cooked in the oven would produce the least amount of bacteria. Overall, the results were inconsistent and there is room for improvement in this project if performed again.
Hebron

Sophia Foster
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Harmful or Helpful?
--The purpose of this experiment was to discover which concentration of hydrogen peroxide had the greatest effect on seed germination. Ten Rudbeca goldsturm seeds were placed in folded paper towel that had been soaked in one of three concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (3%, 6%, 12%) and then placed in a clear plastic bag. An additional bag with just water served as a control. The bags were labeled and placed in the sun and observed for germination. At the end of ten days, the ten seeds were planted in potting soil and the pots were placed in sunlight. Plant heights were determined as sprouting began. Data was collected every week for two months. At week two, the no hydrogen peroxide plant grew 4 cm, the low grew 6.5 cm, the medium 3 cm, and there was no growth with the high. At week 8, the pot with no hydrogen peroxide grew 14 cm, the low grew 15 cm, the medium 7.5 cm, and there was no growth with the high concentration. In conclusion, the hypothesis was both supported and not supported. The hypothesis was not supported because the medium and high concentrations appeared to kill the seed during germination. The hypothesis was supported because the low concentration of hydrogen peroxide promoted seed germination. When the hydrogen peroxide was absorbed into the soil, the hydrogen peroxide broke down and released oxygen and made the roots healthy and stable.
Valparaiso

Erica Hoffman
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: The Breakdown of Pesticides Through Hydroponics
--The purpose of this experiment is to find a different way of farming to prevent pesticides from entering people's drinking water. My procedure consisted of taking two aloe plants in hydroponic potting systems with small amounts of pesticides in the water, and measuring the ppm levels of the water over the course of a week. My data showed that the ppm levels decreased over 7 days for the aloe plants, compared to the pot without a plant’s ppm levels. In conclusion, my data did seem to support my hypothesis, but will have to be deemed as inconclusive. The TDS meter used to measure the ppm levels was too inaccurate/sensitive, making the data unreliable.
Hebron

Tristen Shields
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Optics: The Distortion of Light with Lasers
--The purpose of this project was to observe the refraction of lasers from a laser pointer from air to different liquids in different conditions, and to record any difference in refraction. Refraction is when a beam of light (the laser) enters from a less dense area (air) into a more dense area (the liquid). The denser area has more molecules packed into a space, which slows the photons in the laser down enough to adjust the speed of the photons and make the laser appear at a different angle. This project aimed to prove whether light and temperature would alter the angle of refraction, and if the differences would be proportionate in liquids with different density and positions on the pH scale. The results of this project showed that light and temperature affect the angle of refraction, and that the angle of refraction differed between the different liquids (water, vinegar, soap, oil), but there wasn’t as much of a correlation between them as the hypothesis originally predicted, based on their density or pH.
Nashville

Daniel Goodrich
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Does the shape of glass affect a solar panel's efficiency?
Lamar

Laney Shepherd
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Bacteria Monster
--This project was to see how the mouthwash used everyday by people kills the bacteria that is on the tongue. Over the course of this project six mouthwashes were used to test the way bacteria in the mouth is killed. In this experiment there was an alcohol-based mouthwash and a natural mouthwash used. Over the course of six days the bacteria was tested. I measured the ring of inhibition to see the amount of bacteria killed in centimeters. Over the course of six days only three types of mouthwash killed some bacteria. To test the bacteria we first had to place swabs of bacteria on an agar plate. Second, we dipped circles of filter paper in mouthwash and finally placed the filter paper in the center of the bacteria. The bacteria after two days started to grow colonies showing that the mouthwash had not killed the bacteria. Although the colonies of bacteria started to spread, in natural mouthwash I had seen that the mouthwash had prevented the colonies from spreading.
Brazil

Hyrum Hale
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Portable and Affordable Wheelchair
Greencastle

Iris Mackenzie
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Testing the Fertility of Mushrooms Grown in Styrofoam-polluted Water
Greencastle

Maieasha Rashid
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Presence of Hg Levels in Wild-Caught and Farmed-Fresh Fish
Greencastle

Mia Sartain
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Skyglow and Weather
--Have you ever heard of skyglow or light pollution? If you haven't, you are not alone, but skyglow is a real problem that affects many things in life, not just life in the human form. Skyglow affects our biological clocks, as well as animals, making their daily routines harder to time and work effectively. For this project, I wanted to test how skyglow and the weather-related to each other. My hypothesis was that skyglow would increase on clear days and decrease on more cloudy days. To execute this I installed an app on my phone that utilizes my camera to tell the position of the stars. It would take data of eight stars and calculate about how many stars I can see per night. I repeated this process every night for about 6 weeks to compare data of as many weather conditions as possible. The results I gathered made my hypothesis correct because you can see considerably more stars in clear days than on days that are more cloudy or have different precipitation conditions. The average number of stars seen on clear days was 443.75 stars while cloudy days were 93 stars (with the outlier) and 2.3 stars (without the outlier). To sum it up, my hypothesis was proven true, meaning skyglow does adapt to the weather conditions, which can make skyglow more predictable and possibly preventable.
Fort Wayne

Rocco Jann
This is a Team Project-14685-1548085689
Grade-9 Project Number-
Title: Effects of Water Temperature on Coral Reef Survival
--Coral reef bleaching is caused by a significant loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae, usually initiated by an increase in sea surface temperatures. The consequences of rising sea surface temperatures on coral reefs was examined using data recovered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). It was hypothesized that more bleaching events would occur during the summer months due to an increase in global temperatures present during this time of year. In addition, when temperatures would surpass the average temperature, it was expected that there would be stress evident on the coral. Our results supported our hypothesis indicating that when the water temperature increased beyond the average temperature of 29.7°C, bleaching events occurred among the coral.
Crown Point